Presentation on theme: "Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative (DOSA): Treatment and Supervision"— Presentation transcript:
1 Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative (DOSA): Treatment and Supervision A Presentation to the Sentencing Guidelines CommissionDecember 12, 2003Polly Phipps, Ph.D.Washington State Institute for Public PolicyBill Luchansky, Ph.D.Looking Glass AnalyticsWashington StateInstitute for Public Policy
2 What Is DOSA?Provides a drug treatment alternative for felony offenders who receive a prison sentence.Under DOSA, time in confinement is reduced by half if offender completes treatment.Between 1995–99, only first-time felony drug offenders could receive DOSA.In 1999, E2SHB 1006:expanded DOSA eligibility to include all felony drug and property offenders, andmade drug offenders ineligible for work ethic camp, a non-drug treatment sentencing option.
3 Who Is Eligible for DOSA? Offenders with a sentence greater than one year (offenses committed after July 24, 1999).If drug offense, must involve only a small quantity (not defined in RCW) of a controlled substance.Offenders are not eligible if they have a:current or prior sex or violent offense,deadly weapon sentence enhancement, ordeportation order.
4 Current Study E2SHB 1006 directed WSIPP to evaluate DOSA. This presentation focuses on how DOSA has been implemented. Are DOSA offenders:receiving and completing treatment?held accountable for behavior that violates DOSA sentence conditions through sanctions and revocations?The final report, due December 2004, will focus on criminal recidivism and cost-effectiveness.
5 Data SourcesSentencing Guidelines Commission sentencing data (FY 00 and 01)Department of Corrections (DOC) chemical dependency treatment dataIncluded in DASA TARGET databaseDOC supervision violation dataWSIPP criminal justice database
7 Group Characteristics* DOSA OffendersDOCPrison PopulationAverage Age32.735.8GenderMale79%92%Female21%8%RaceWhite65%72%Black29%Native American3%4%Asian2%Other1%EthnicityHispanic11%*Percents may not add to 100 due to rounding; N=1,883. Doc prison population statistics for March, 2003.
8 County Characteristics* Sentencing CountySupervision CountyDOSA OffendersDOC Prison PopulationDOC Population Contact SupervisionKing43%25%41%24%Pierce17%16%Kitsap7%4%6%3%Spokane5%9%ThurstonSnohomish8%Benton2%CowlitzLewis1%All Other Counties15%29%14%34%*Percents may not add to 100 due to rounding. N=1,883 for DOSA sentencing county and N=16,492 for DOC resident inmates by sentencing county (March 2003); N=1,865 for DOSA supervision county with 18 unknown, and N=32,831 for DOC supervision county-offenders with contact required (2003).
9 Criminal History and DOSA Offenses Criminal History (not including DOSA offenses)3.5 prior felony convictions3.7 prior misdemeanor convictionsDOSA Offenses65% were convicted of felony drug offenses.26% were convicted of non-drug felony offenses.9% were convicted of both drug and non-drug felony offenses.N=1,883
10 Sentence Length and Prison Stay Average Length ofConfinement DOSA SentenceAverage Prison Time ServedN=1,883WSIPP 2003
11 Drug Use Characteristics, DOSA Offenders 2% OtherAlcoholPrimary Drug UseStage of AddictionWSIPP 2003N=1,767; 116 missing
12 DOC DOSA PolicyAll DOSA offenders receive a chemical dependency assessment in prison.Chemically dependent offenders receive treatment per DOC policy.DOSA offenders receive priority for treatment.Addiction severity, custody level, risk classification, sentence length, and treatment capacity are factors in determining treatment modality and duration.Upon prison release, offenders must continue to participate in outpatient treatment programs a minimum of three months.Sentence revocation procedures are in place for DOSA offenders who:Fail to complete treatment continuum, violate court- or department-imposed release conditions, are convicted of a new felony, or are subject to an INS department order.
13 DOSA Treatment Continuum Initial Treatment ModesIntensive OutpatientA 5, 6, 9, or 12 week program providing up to 72 hours of treatmentAvailable in confinement and communityIntensive Inpatient30 days in lengthDiscontinued in 2000Long Term Residential6 to 12 monthsContinuing Outpatient TreatmentWeekly sessions for a minimum of 3 months
14 Did DOSA Offenders Receive an Assessment? No Assessment4%96%Received AssessmentN=1,883WSIPP 2003
15 Did DOSA Offenders Receive the Initial Treatment? 88% Received Treatment12%Long Term Residential56%Intensive Outpatient12%No Treatment20%Intensive InpatientN=1,883WSIPP 2003
16 Did DOSA Offenders Complete the Initial Treatment? 75% Completed Treatment12%NoTreatment11%Did NotComplete46%Intensive OutpatientStill inTreatment2%10% Long Term Residential19%Intensive InpatientN=1,883WSIPP 2003
17 Type of Initial Treatment Received and Completed WSIPP 2003
18 Average Treatment Time Span for Initial Treatment Mode Intensive InpatientIntensiveOutpatientLong-TermResidentialWSIPP 2003Treatment ended an average of four months prior to prison release.N=1,653 receiving treatment
19 Stage of Addiction by Initial Treatment Mode Intensive OutpatientIntensive InpatientLong Term ResidentialWSIPP 2003N=1,653 receiving treatment
20 Did DOSA Offenders Receive Continuing Outpatient Treatment? 49% Received Treatment in the Community34%Community37%No Treatment15%Confinement& Community25%ConfinementN=1,883WSIPP 2003
21 Did DOSA Offenders Complete Outpatient Treatment? 20% Community Completions11%Still inTreatment20%Community37%Did Not Receive Treatment4%Confinement29%Did Not CompleteN=1,883WSIPP 2003
22 DOSA Community Supervision Stipulated Agreement Violations and Sanctions28% of DOSA offenders had at least one stipulated agreement violation.A DOC study currently underway has found that 17% of all offenders under DOC or OAA jurisdiction in FY01 had at least one stipulated agreement violation.Supervision Violations and Sanctions50% of DOSA offenders had at least one supervision violation for which they were found guilty.A DOC study currently underway has found that 32% of all offenders under DOC or OAA jurisdiction in FY 01 were found guilty of a violation.DOSA sentence revocations19% of DOSA offenders had their sentences revoked.6% DOSA offenders had their sentenced revoked due to a new felony offense.
26 Sanctions for Violations Intensive In- or Out-patientTreatment10%Other20%Confinement,County Jail5%IncreasedReporting4%Day Reporting7%23%Confinement,DOC Facility15% CD Evaluation/Follow-up15%DOSARevocationOffenders: 920 Sanctions: 2,463WSIPP 2003
27 Comparing County Revocations and Violations Supervision CountyNumber of DOSA OffendersPercent of Offenders With at Least One ViolationPercent of Offenders With RevocationKing76853%18%Pierce31150%20%Spokane13659%26%Kitsap10845%14%Thurston8128%11%Snohomish7755%25%Cowlitz5032%16%Benton4533%Grays Harbor40Clark3842%Lewis3435%Whatcom3364%30%Yakima28All Other Counties11648%Total1,86519%Bolded numbers indicate statistically significant differences; 18 missing.
28 DOSA Violations and Revocations by Community Outpatient Treatment Status Completed TreatmentDid Not CompleteDid Not ReceiveWSIPP 2003N=1,883
29 SummaryAre DOSA offenders receiving and completing the initial treatment?88 percent of all DOSA offenders receive the initial treatment.75 percent of all DOSA offenders complete the initial treatment.Are DOSA offenders receiving and completing continuing outpatient treatment in the community?49% of all DOSA offenders receive outpatient treatment in the community.20% of all DOSA offenders complete outpatient treatment in the community.
30 Summary (continued)Are DOSA offenders held accountable for behavior that violates DOSA requirements?Approximately 50% of DOSA offenders received a supervision violation.Nearly 60% of all supervision violation sanctions involve confinement time; 20% of all supervision violation sanctions are treatment-related.Violations and revocations vary slightly across counties, with a few significant differences.King and Spokane have significantly higher violations, while Thurston and Cowlitz have significantly lower violations.Spokane has significantly higher revocations.Offenders who complete community outpatient treatment have the lowest violation and revocation rates.
31 Final DOSA EvaluationIn the final DOSA evaluation (due to the Legislature December 2004), a pre-post study design with a treatment and a comparison group will be used. The evaluation will address the following questions:Did the new DOSA legislation change sentencing practices?Are drug treatment services effective?Does DOSA reduce criminal recidivism?Does DOSA save state resources?