Presentation on theme: "Gender differences in preschool children’s declared and behavioral compliance with pedestrian rules 學生：董瑩蟬."— Presentation transcript:
Gender differences in preschool children’s declared and behavioral compliance with pedestrian rules 學生：董瑩蟬
Purpose This paper aim investigated children pedestrian behavior. Used observed method collect 12 data. The interview that has 12 pictures to required children looking. And nest, the children answering four questions. The analysis aim gender difference.
Reference The boys has more times and more serious than girls. (Baker et al.,1992; Rivara et al.,1982; Rivara et al.,1987) Moyano Diaz (2002) investigated the gender difference for violation rule. The males were more risky attitudes than females. (DeJoy,1992; Peterson et al.,1997; Rosenbloom et al.,2002)
Reference The males has more rule breaking than females that accrued crashed. (Simon et al.,1996; Yagil,1998) Some studies showed that the male pedestrians has more violated than females. (Moyano Diaz,2002 and so on.) The male drivers has lower level to comply with traffic laws than did female drivers. (Yagil, 1998)
Method Participants –162 children (83 boys and 79 girls) –Age between 5 to 6 years (mean=5.7) –The children’s parent permission to participate this experiment –The children from nine different school, each school was 18 children. –The observed process that the children accompanied by an adult
Method Observers –There were six training sessions for observers Process –The observations from school to home. The observers collect pedestrian behavior, but the participants don’t know the observation time. The observation time never exceeded 10 min. –The Danger appraisal and rule compliance data collect from interviews. This aim investigated for children.
Method Behaviors coded –Crossing inside the marked crosswalk –Stopping at the curb –Looking before crossing –Crossing speed –Crossing path –Taking the adult’s hand –Walking and not running on the sidewalk (walking speed)
Method Behaviors coded –Walking at a steady pace –Not walking on the curb side of the sidewalk (position on sidewalk) –Checking the surrounding environment while walking (looking while walking) –Who took the other’s hand before crossing –Did the adult stay close to the child or not ？ The accuracy behavior were calculated 1 score.
Method Danger appraisal and declared compliance with pedestrian rules –There were 12 21×29.7 cm photographs present to the children. –The picture include walking on the sidewalk(2) playing in the street(3) crossing(2) choosing a crossing site(2) attaching one’s seatbelt(3)
Method Danger appraisal and declared compliance with pedestrian rules –After look picture, there were four questions Danger appraisal: It is dangerous or not dangerous to do that? Rule compliance: Would you do that? Rule knowledge: Are you allowed to do that? Rule internalization: If you were allowed to do that, would you do it?
Result- behavioral compliance The travel time was no significant different on gender. χ 2 (1)=0.57,ns. The number of streets crossed was no significant different on gender. χ 2 (1)=1.74,ns. The Mann-Whitney test result showed that the gender has significant different in behavioral compliance. (U=2533.5,n 1 =83,n 2 =79,P<0.01)
Result- behavioral compliance Chi square showed that the gender has significant different. χ2(1)=20.78,P<0.01 χ2(1)=6.35,P<0.05 χ2(1)=10.4,P<0.01 χ2(1)=11.16,P<0.01 χ2(1)=21.78,P<0.01 χ2(1)=6.15,P<0.05
Result-danger appraisal and rule compliance * 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 Mann-Whitney tests showed that the gender has significant different: 1.U=2455.5, n 1 =80, n 2 =79, P<0.01 2.U=2484.5, n1=80, n2=79, P<0.05 3.U=2537.5, n1=80, n2=79, P<0.05 4.U=2489.5, n1=80, n2=79, P<0.05
Result-danger appraisal and rule compliance The non-parametric correlations between the danger appraisal score and the rule compliance, rule knowledge, and rule internalization scores. 1.τ b (159)=0.67,P<0.001 2.τ b (159)=0.79,P<0.001 1212
Result-Behavioral and declared compliance The non-parametric correlations by Kendall’s Tau-b test relationship between declared compliance and behavioral compliance score. The whole sample τb(159)=0.09,n.s The boy sample τb(80)=-0.01,n.s The girl sample τb(79)=0.12,n.s
Result-Behavioral and declared compliance 1 *2 * 3434 The Mann-Whitney tests were to test for an effect of declared compliance on behavioral compliance. The result: 1.U=556.5, n 1 =34,n 2 =45,p<0.05 2.U=2551.5, n1=83,n2=76,p<0.05 3.U=757, n1=49,n2=34,n.s 4.U=470.5, n1=31,n2=45,p<0.02
Discussion The result showed that the girls’ behavior more comply traffic rule than boy, it similar to adult pedestrian. (Moyano Diaz,2002; Rosenbloom et al.,2004; Yagil, 2000) The result found that girls held the adult’s hand more than boy. Some studies showed that the girls are more submissive than boys, when the adult’s held children. (Block,1983; Fagot,1978; Ruble et al.,1988; Turner et al.,1995)
Discussion The result showed that the girl trend to better pedestrian rule internalization. (Yagil, 1998,2000) The man has more social approval of violations they commit than female. (Parker et al.,1992)
Conclusion The girls’ behavior were more compliant traffic rule than boys. The boy were more frequency than girl on looking traffic situation before crossing. Girl has more compliant rule, knowledge rule and rule internalization than boy. The has high relationship between declared compliance and behavior compliance for girl.