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Computer Networks with Internet Technology William Stallings

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1 Computer Networks with Internet Technology William Stallings
Interior Routing Protocols Computer Networks with Internet Technology William Stallings Chapter 11 Interior Routing Protocols Chapter 15

2 Autonomous Systems (AS)
Interior Routing Protocols Autonomous Systems (AS) Group of routers exchanging information via common routing protocol Set of routers and networks managed by single organization Connected Except in time of failure Chapter 15

3 Interior Routing Protocol (IRP)
Interior Routing Protocols Interior Routing Protocol (IRP) Passes routing information between routers within AS Does not need to be implemented outside AS Allows IRP to be tailored May be different algorithms and routing information in different connected AS Need minimum information from other connected AS At least one router in each AS must talk Use Exterior Routing Protocol (ERP) Chapter 15

4 Exterior Routing Protocol (ERP)
Interior Routing Protocols Exterior Routing Protocol (ERP) Pass less information than IRP Router in first system determines route to target AS Routers in target AS then co-operate to deliver datagram ERP does not deal with details within target AS Chapter 15

5 Figure 11.4 Application of Exterior and Interior Routing Protocols
Chapter 15

6 Approaches to Routing – Distance-vector
Interior Routing Protocols Approaches to Routing – Distance-vector Each node (router or host) exchange information with neighboring nodes Neighbors are both directly connected to same network First generation routing algorithm for ARPANET Node maintains vector of link costs for each directly attached network and distance and next-hop vectors for each destination Used by Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Requires transmission of lots of information by each router Distance vector to all neighbors Contains estimated path cost to all networks in configuration Changes take long time to propagate Chapter 15

7 Approaches to Routing – Link-state
Interior Routing Protocols Approaches to Routing – Link-state Designed to overcome drawbacks of distance-vector When router initialized, it determines link cost on each interface Advertises set of link costs to all other routers in topology Not just neighboring routers From then on, monitor link costs If significant change, router advertises new set of link costs Each router can construct topology of entire configuration Can calculate shortest path to each destination network Router constructs routing table, listing first hop to each destination Router does not use distributed routing algorithm Use any routing algorithm to determine shortest paths In practice, Dijkstra's algorithm Open shortest path first (OSPF) protocol uses link-state routing. Also second generation routing algorithm for ARPANET Chapter 15

8 Exterior Router Protocols – Path-vector
Interior Routing Protocols Exterior Router Protocols – Path-vector Provide information about which networks can be reached by a given router and ASs crossed to get there Does not include distance or cost estimate Each block of information lists all ASs visited on this route Enables router to perform policy routing e.g. avoid path to avoid transiting particular AS e.g. link speed, capacity, tendency to become congested, and overall quality of operation, security e.g. minimizing number of transit ASs Chapter 15

9 Interior Routing Protocols
11.2 Least Cost Algorithms Least-cost criterion If minimize number of hops, link value 1 Link value may be inversely proportional to capacity, proportional to current load, or some combination May differ in different two directions E.g. if cost equaled length of queue Cost of path between two nodes as sum of costs of links traversed For each pair of nodes, find least cost path  Two common algorithms Dijkstra's algorithm Bellman-Ford algorithm Chapter 15

10 11.3 Distance Vector Routing: RIP
Interior Routing Protocols 11.3 Distance Vector Routing: RIP Each node exchange information with neighbors Directly connected by same network Each node maintains three vectors Link cost Distance vector Next hop vector Every 30 seconds, exchange distance vector with neighbors Use this to update distance and next hop vector Chapter 15

11 Figure 11.1 A Configuration of Routers and Networks
Interior Routing Protocols Figure 11.1 A Configuration of Routers and Networks (changed to 1) (changed to 1) Chapter 15

12 Figure 11.8 Distance Vector Algorithm Applied to Figure 11.1
Interior Routing Protocols Figure Distance Vector Algorithm Applied to Figure 11.1 Chapter 15

13 RIP Details – Incremental Update
Interior Routing Protocols RIP Details – Incremental Update Updates do not arrive from neighbors within small time window RIP packets use UDP Tables updated after receipt of individual distance vector Add any new destination network Replace existing routes with small delay ones If update from router R, update all routes using R as next hop Chapter 15

14 RIP Details – Topology Change
Interior Routing Protocols RIP Details – Topology Change If no updates received from a router within 180 seconds, mark route invalid Invalid timer: 180 sec Assumes router crash or network connection unstable Set distance value to infinity Actually 16 Chapter 15

15 Counting to Infinity Problem (1)
Interior Routing Protocols Counting to Infinity Problem (1) Slow convergence may cause: All links are assumed cost 1 B has distance to network 5 as 2, next hop D A & C have distance 3 and next hop B Chapter 15

16 Counting to Infinity Problem (2)
Interior Routing Protocols Counting to Infinity Problem (2) Suppose router D fails: B determines network 5 no longer reachable via D Sets distance to 4 based on report from A or C At next update, B tells A and C this A and C receive this and increment their network 5 distance to 5 4 from B plus 1 to reach B B receives distance count 5 and assumes network 5 is 6 away Repeat until reach infinity (16) Takes 8 to 16 minutes to resolve × Chapter 15

17 Interior Routing Protocols
Split Horizon Counting to infinity problem caused by misunderstanding between B and A, and B and C Each thinks it can reach network 5 via the other Split Horizon rule says do not send information about a route back in the direction it came from Router sending information is nearer destination than you That is, A should not tell B “the distance to network 5”. Erroneous route now eliminated within time out period (180 seconds) Chapter 15

18 Interior Routing Protocols
Poisoned Reverse Send updates with hop count of 16 to neighbors for route learned from those neighbors If two routers have routes pointing at each other advertising reverse route with metric 16 breaks loop immediately B tells A and C “distance to network 5 is 16” Chapter 15

19 Figure 11.9 RIP Packet Format (v1)
Interior Routing Protocols Figure RIP Packet Format (v1) Command: 1: request, 2: response Address Family identifier: IP, IPX, … Over UDP Multicast: Chapter 15

20 Interior Routing Protocols
RIP v2 Route Tag: 0 or AS# Chapter 15

21 Interior Routing Protocols
Chapter 15

22 RIP Packet Format Notes
Interior Routing Protocols RIP Packet Format Notes Command: 1=request 2=reply Updates are replies whether asked for or not Initializing node broadcasts request Requests are replied to immediately Version: 1 or 2 Address family: 2 for IP IP address: non-zero network portion, zero host portion Identifies particular network Metric Path distance from this router to network Typically 1, so metric is hop count Chapter 15

23 Interior Routing Protocols
RIP Limitations Destinations with metric more than 15 are unreachable If larger metric allowed, convergence becomes lengthy Simple metric leads to sub-optimal routing tables Packets sent over slower links Accept RIP updates from any device Misconfigured device can disrupt entire configuration Chapter 15

24 11.4 Link-State Protocol: OSPF
Interior Routing Protocols 11.4 Link-State Protocol: OSPF RIP limited in large internets Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) OSPF preferred interior routing protocol for TCP/IP based internets Link state routing used Directly over IP Chapter 15

25 Interior Routing Protocols
Link State Routing When initialized, router determines link cost on each interface Router advertises these costs to all other routers in topology Router monitors its costs When changes occurs, costs are re-advertised Each router constructs topology and calculates shortest path to each destination network Not distributed version of routing algorithm Can use any algorithm Dijkstra Chapter 15

26 Interior Routing Protocols
Flooding Packet sent by source router to every neighbor Incoming packet resent to all outgoing links except source link Duplicate packets already transmitted are discarded Prevent incessant retransmission All possible routes tried so packet will get through if route exists Highly robust At least one packet follows minimum delay route Reach all routers quickly All nodes connected to source are visited All routers get information to build routing table High traffic load Chapter 15

27 Figure 11.10 Flooding Example
Interior Routing Protocols Figure Flooding Example Chapter 15

28 Interior Routing Protocols
OSPF Overview Router maintains descriptions of state of local links Transmits updated state information to all routers it knows about Router receiving update must acknowledge Lots of traffic generated Each router maintains database Directed graph Chapter 15

29 Interior Routing Protocols
Router Database Graph Vertices Router Network Transit Stub Edges Connecting two routers Connecting router to network Built using link state information from other routers Chapter 15

30 Figure 11.11 Sample Autonomous System
Interior Routing Protocols Figure Sample Autonomous System Chapter 15

31 Figure 11.12 Directed Graph of Autonomous System of Figure 19.7
Interior Routing Protocols Figure Directed Graph of Autonomous System of Figure 19.7 Chapter 15

32 Interior Routing Protocols
Link Costs Cost of each hop in each direction is called routing metric OSPF provides flexible metric scheme based on type of service (TOS) Normal (TOS 0) Minimize monetary cost (TOS 2) Maximize reliability (TOS 4) Maximize throughput (TOS 8) Minimize delay (TOS 16) Each router generates 5 spanning trees (and 5 routing tables) Chapter 15

33 Figure 11.13 The SPF Tree for Router R6
Interior Routing Protocols Figure The SPF Tree for Router R6 Chapter 15

34 Interior Routing Protocols
Areas Make large internets more manageable Configure as backbone and multiple areas Area – Collection of contiguous networks and hosts plus routers connected to any included network Backbone – contiguous collection of networks not contained in any area, their attached routers and routers belonging to multiple areas Chapter 15

35 Interior Routing Protocols
Operation of Areas Each area runs a separate copy of the link state algorithm Topological database and graph of just that area Link state information broadcast to other routers in area Reduces traffic Intra-area routing relies solely on local link state information Chapter 15

36 Interior Routing Protocols
Inter-Area Routing Path consists of three legs Within source area Intra-area Through backbone Has properties of an area Uses link state routing algorithm for inter-area routing Within destination area Chapter 15

37 Figure 11.14 OSPF Packet Header
Interior Routing Protocols Figure OSPF Packet Header * directly over IP Chapter 15

38 Interior Routing Protocols
Packet Format Notes Version number: 2 is current Type: one of 5, see next slide Packet length: in octets including header Router id: this packet’s source, 32 bit Area id: Area to which source router belongs Authentication type: null, simple password or encryption Authentication data: used by authentication procedure Chapter 15

39 Interior Routing Protocols
OSPF Packet Types Hello: used in neighbor discovery Database description: Defines set of link state information present in each router’s database Link state request Link state update Link state acknowledgement Chapter 15

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