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Chapter 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4

2 Q.1 A. ambiguous sentences I like sweet apples and oranges
B. different structure and the same meaning Susie seems to be studying algebra It seems that Susie is studying algebra C. structurally related I am going to the movies I am not going to the movies

3 Q .4 Representing structural ambiguity
The magician touched the child with the wand.

4 Meaning 1:The magician with the wand touched the child.

5 Meaning 2:The magician touched the child that had a wand.

6 Q5. Phrase structure rule expansions.
a. Expansions of VP →V(NP)(PP)(Adv) VP→V Example: John left. VP→V NP Example: John left the house. VP→V NP PP Example: John put the book on the table.

7 4. VP →V NP PP Adv Example: John drew a picture on the board beautifully. 5. VP→V PP Example: John ran into the house. 6. VP→V PP Adv Example: John ran into the house quickly. 7. VP→V Adv Example: John left quietly. 8. VP→V NP Adv Example: John left the house quietly.

8 b. Expansions of NP →(Det)(AP)N(PP)
1. NP→N Example: John left. NP→Det N Example: The boy left. NP→Det AP N Example: The little boy left 4. NP→Det AP N PP Example: The green apples in the refrigerator are sweet.

9 5. NP→AP N Example: I prefer green apples to red ones. 6. NP→AP N PP Example: Big houses on this street are beautiful. 7. NP→Det N PP Example: The flowers in that vase are mine. 8. NP→N PP Example: John likes milk from their farm the most.

10 Q6. Embedded sentences A. Yesterday I notice my accountant repairing the toilet. B. Becky said that Jake would play the piano C. I deplore that fact that bats gave wings D. That Guinevere loves Lorian is known to all my friends E. Who promised the teacher that Maxine wouldn’t be absent?

11 F. It’s ridiculous that he washes his won Rolls-Royce
G. That woman likes for the waiter to bring water when she sits down. H. The person who answers this questions will win $100 i. The idea of Romeo marring a 13-year-old is upsetting

12 J. I gave my hat to the nurse who helped me cut my hair
K. For your children to spend all your royalty payments on recreational drugs is a shame L. Give this fork to the person I’m getting the pie for. M. Khaw chya waa khruu maa (Thai) He believe complementizer teacher come He believes the teacher is coming N. Je me demande quand il partira (French) I me ask when he will leave I wonder when he’ll leave

13 O. Jan zei dat Piet dit boek niet heeft gelezen (Dutch) Jan said that Piet this book not has read Jan said that Piet has not read this book

14 Phrase structure trees.

15 a. The puppy found the child.

16 b. A frightened passenger landed the crippled airliner.

17 c. The house on the hill collapsed in the wind.

18 d. The ice melted.

19 e. The hot sun melted the ice.

20 f. A fast car with twin cams sped by the children on the grassy lane
f. A fast car with twin cams sped by the children on the grassy lane. This sentence is structurally ambiguous.

21 Meaning 1: A fast car with twin cams sped by the children who were on the grassy lane.

22 Meaning 2: A fast car with twin cams sped on the grassy lane by the children.

23 g. The old trees swayed in the wind.

24 h. The children put the toy in the box.

25 i. The reporter realized that the senator lied.

26 j. Broken ice melts in the sun.

27 k. The guitar gently weeps.

28 Q13: Subcategorization a. The man located. The verb locate is transitive: it requires an NP object. locate, V, ______NP b. Jesus wept the apostles. The verb weep is intransitive: it does not allow an object. weep, V, _____ c. Robert is hopeful of his children. The adjective hopeful allows a sentential complement (e.g. that his children will succeed )or no complement, but it cannot take a PP complement with of . hopeful, Adj, _____(that S)

29 d. Robert is fond that his children love animals
d. Robert is fond that his children love animals. The adjective fond allows a PP complement with of, but cannot take a sentential complement. fond, Adj, ____ PP[of] e. The children laughed the man. Like weep, the verb laugh is intransitive and may not take a direct object; however, unlike weep, laugh allows a PP with at. laugh, V, ____(PP)[at]

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