Source: Holland et al. 2011 International Journal of Health Services 41 (3): 415-430
Source Akinwale B, Lynch K, Wiggins R, et al. J Epidemiol Community Health (2010). doi:10.1136/jech.2009.099325 Mortality rate for men aged 55-64 followed up for 5 years after each census
Mortality rate for working age men and women on sickness benefit in New Zealand Shaw et al. 2011 Mortality among the working age population receiving incapacity benefits in New Zealand, 1981-2004 Social Science and Medicine 73, 568-575
Education gradient for working age men in not good health before and after adjustment for labour market status (2001 census) Source: Bambra and Popham Health and Place 2010, 16: 1014-1021
Prevalence difference in not good health for working age men over time Source: Popham et al BMJ Open 2012;2:e001342
Source: Tarkiainen et al. 2013 JECH: 67 21-27 Mortality ratio by income quintile Finnish working age men 2004-2007
Source: Marshall and Norman 2013: Geographies of the impact of retirement on health in the United Kingdom. Health and Place 20: 1-12
Conclusion Worklessness related to ill health risen in many countries over time but uneven by SES – Even amongst women whose labour market participation has often risen – Open questions about role of national policy on between country variation Worklessness associated with poor health and heightened mortality risk Potentially important factor in population health and health inequalities. Further longitudinal & quasi- experimental evidence needed. How much is a labour market / health issue?