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7/20 The following table shows the number of people that like a particular fast food restaurant. 1)What is the probability that a person likes Wendy’s? 2)What is the probability that a person is male given they like Burger King? 3. What is the probability that a randomly chosen person is female or likes McDonald’s? 3/5 McDonald’sBurger KingWendy’s Male201510 Female201025 3/4

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Probability Independent vs. Dependent events

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Independent Events Two events A and B, are independent if the fact that A occurs does not affect the probability of B occurring. Examples- Landing on heads from two different coins, rolling a 4 on a die, then rolling a 3 on a second roll of the die. Probability of A and B occurring: P(A and B) = P(A) P(B)

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Experiment 1 A coin is tossed and a 6-sided die is rolled. Find the probability of landing on the head side of the coin and rolling a 3 on the die. P (head)=1/2 P (head)=1/2 P(3)=1/6 P(3)=1/6 P (head and 3)=P (head) P(3) P (head and 3)=P (head) P(3) =1/2 1/6 =1/2 1/6 = 1/12 = 1/12

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Experiment 2 A card is chosen at random from a deck of 52 cards. It is then replaced and a second card is chosen. What is the probability of choosing a jack and an eight? P (jack)= 4/52 P (jack)= 4/52 P (8)= 4/52 P (8)= 4/52 P (jack and 8)= 4/52 4/52 P (jack and 8)= 4/52 4/52 = 1/169 = 1/169

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Experiment 3 A jar contains three red, five green, two blue and six yellow marbles. A marble is chosen at random from the jar. After replacing it, a second marble is chosen. What is the probability of choosing a green and a yellow marble? P (green) = 5/16 P (green) = 5/16 P (yellow) = 6/16 P (yellow) = 6/16 P (green and yellow) = P (green) P (yellow) P (green and yellow) = P (green) P (yellow) = 15 / 128 = 15 / 128

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Experiment 4 A school survey found that 9 out of 10 students like pizza. If three students are chosen at random with replacement, what is the probability that all three students like pizza? P (student 1 likes pizza) = 9/10 P (student 1 likes pizza) = 9/10 P (student 2 likes pizza) = 9/10 P (student 2 likes pizza) = 9/10 P (student 3 likes pizza) = 9/10 P (student 3 likes pizza) = 9/10 P (student 1 and student 2 and student 3 like pizza) = 9/10 9/10 9/10 = 729/1000 P (student 1 and student 2 and student 3 like pizza) = 9/10 9/10 9/10 = 729/1000

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Dependent Events Two events A and B, are dependent if the fact that A occurs affects the probability of B occurring. Examples- Picking a blue marble and then picking another blue marble if I don’t replace the first one. Probability of A and B occurring: P(A and B) = P(A) P(B|A)

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Experiment 1 A jar contains three red, five green, two blue and six yellow marbles. A marble is chosen at random from the jar. A second marble is chosen without replacing the first one. What is the probability of choosing a green and a yellow marble? P (green) = 5/16 P (yellow given green) = 6/15 P (green and then yellow) = P (green) P (yellow) = 1/8 = 1/8

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Experiment 2 An aquarium contains 6 male goldfish and 4 female goldfish. You randomly select a fish from the tank, do not replace it, and then randomly select a second fish. What is the probability that both fish are male? P (male) = 6/10 P (male) = 6/10 P (male given 1 st male) = 5/9 P (male given 1 st male) = 5/9 P (male and then, male) = 1/3 P (male and then, male) = 1/3

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Experiment 3 A random sample of parts coming off a machine is done by an inspector. He found that 5 out of 100 parts are bad on average. If he were to do a new sample, what is the probability that he picks a bad part and then, picks another bad part if he doesn’t replace the first? P (bad) = 5/100 P (bad) = 5/100 P (bad given 1 st bad) = 4/99 P (bad given 1 st bad) = 4/99 P (bad and then, bad) = 1/495 P (bad and then, bad) = 1/495

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Independent vs. Dependent Determining if 2 events are independent

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Independent Events Two events are independent if the following are true: P(A|B) = P(A) P(B|A) = P(B) P(A AND B) = P(A) ⋅ P(B) To show 2 events are independent, you must prove one of the above conditions.

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Experiment 1 Let event G = taking a math class. Let event H = taking a science class. Then, G AND H = taking a math class and a science class. Suppose P(G) = 0.6, P(H) = 0.5, and P(G AND H) = 0.3. Are G and H independent?

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Experiment 2 In a particular college class, 60% of the students are female. 50% of all students in the class have long hair. 45% of the students are female and have long hair. Of the female students, 75% have long hair. Let F be the event that the student is female. Let L be the event that the student has long hair. One student is picked randomly. Are the events of being female and having long hair independent?

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Approach #2 If they are independent, P(L|F) should equal P(L). 0.75 ≠ 0.5

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Homework Practice Worksheet

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