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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events SDAP3.5 Understand the difference between independent and dependent events. Also covered: SDAP3.3, SDAP3.4 California Standards

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Vocabulary independent events dependent events

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Raji and Kara must each choose a topic from a list of topics to research for their class. If Raji can choose the same topic as Kara and vice versa, the events are independent. For independent events, the occurrence of one event has no effect on the probability that a second event will occur. If once Raji chooses a topic, Kara must choose from the remaining topics, then the events are dependent. For dependent events, the occurrence of one event does have an effect on the probability that a second event will occur.

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Decide whether the set of events are dependent or independent. Explain your answer. Additional Example 1: Determining Whether Events Are Independent or Dependent A. Kathi draws a 4 from a set of cards numbered 1–10 and rolls a 2 on a number cube. Since the outcome of drawing the card does not affect the outcome of rolling the cube, the events are independent.

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Decide whether the set of events are dependent or independent. Explain your answer. Additional Example 1: Determining Whether Events Are Independent or Dependent B. Yuki chooses a book from the shelf to read, and then Janette chooses a book from the books that remain. Since Janette cannot pick the same book that Yuki picked, and since there are fewer books for Janette to choose from after Yuki chooses, the events are dependent.

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Decide whether the set of events are dependent or independent. Explain your answer. Additional Example 1: Determining Whether Events Are Independent or Dependent C. Imad chooses a pencil from a drawer, puts it back, and then chooses a second pencil. Both pencils are red. The drawer holds the same pencils each time. Since Imad replaces the first pencil, the outcome of picking the first pencil does not affect the outcome of picking the second pencil. The events are independent.

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Check It Out! Example 1 A. Joann flips a coin and gets a head. Then she rolls a 6 on a number cube. Since flipping the coin does not affect the outcome of rolling the number cube, the events are independent. Decide whether the set of events are dependent or independent. Explain your answer.

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Check It Out! Example 1 B. Annabelle chooses a blue marble from a set of three, each of different colors, and then Louise chooses a second marble from the remaining two marbles. Since they are picking from the same set of three marbles, they cannot pick the same color marble. The events are dependent. Decide whether the set of events are dependent or independent. Explain your answer.

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Decide whether the set of events are dependent or independent. Explain your answer. Check It Out! Example 1 C. Lisa chooses a pen from a bag, puts it back, and then chooses a second pen. Both pens are blue. The bag holds the same pens each time. Since Lisa replaces the first pen, the outcome of picking the first pen does not affect the outcome of picking the second pen. The events are independent.

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events To find the probability that two independent events will happen, multiply the probabilities of the two events. Probability of Two Independent Events = Probability of both events Probability of first event Probability of second event P(A and B) P(A)P(A)P(A)P(A) P(B)P(B)P(B)P(B)

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Find the probability of choosing a green marble at random from a bag of 5 green and 10 white marbles and then flipping a coin and getting tails. Additional Example 2: Finding the Probability of Independent Events The outcome of choosing the marble does not affect the outcome of flipping the coin, so the events are independent. P(green and tails) = P(green) · P(tails) 1 3 = · 1212 The probability of choosing a green marble and a coin landing on tails is. 1616

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Check It Out! Example 2 Find the probability of choosing a red marble at random from a bag containing 5 red and 5 white marbles and then flipping a coin and getting heads. The outcome of choosing the marble does not affect the outcome of flipping the coin, so the events are independent. P(red and heads) = P(red) · P(heads) 1 2 = · 1212 The probability of choosing a red marble and a coin landing on heads is. 1414

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events A basketball player has a 60% chance of making a free throw on each attempt. If the chance of making one free throw is independent of the chance of making the next free throw, what is the probability that the player will make 2 free throws in a row? Additional Example 3: Sports Application P(making 1 st free throw and 2 nd free throw) = P(1 st free throw) ∙ P(2 nd free throw)

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Additional Example 3 Continued = 60% ∙ 60% = 0.60 ∙ 0.60 = 0.36 The probability of the basketball player making 2 free throws in a row is 36%. Substitute 60% for P(1 st free throw) and 60% for P(2 nd free throw). Write the percents as decimals. Multiply. = 36%Write the decimal as a percent.

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events A professional bowler has a 40% chance of bowling a strike on each attempt. If the chance of bowling a strike is independent of the chance of bowling a strike in the next frame, what is the probability that the player will bowl 2 strikes in a row? Check It Out! Example 3 P(1st strike and 2nd strike) = P(1st strike) ∙ P(2nd strike)

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Holt CA Course 1 8-6 Independent and Dependent Events Check It Out! Example 3 Continued = 40% ∙ 40% = 0.40 ∙ 0.40 = 0.16 The probability of the professional bowler bowling 2 strikes in a row is 16%. Substitute 40% for P(1st strike) and 40% for P(2nd strike). Write the percents as decimals. Multiply. = 16%Write the decimal as a percent.

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