Presentation on theme: "LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS NEW ZEALAND PART 3A: EARTHQUAKES Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA."— Presentation transcript:
LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS NEW ZEALAND PART 3A: EARTHQUAKES Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters Planet Earth’s Restlessness Causes Movement of Tectonic Plates: Earthquakes
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN NEW ZEALAND FLOODS WINDSTORMS EARTHQUAKES VOLCANOES ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE HIGH BENEFIT/COST PROGRAMS FOR BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENT GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES
To the north of New Zealand and beneath the eastern North Island, the thin, dense, Pacific plate moves down beneath the thicker, lighter Indo-Australian plate in a process known as subduction (i.e., reverse faulting).
Within the South Island the plate margin is marked by the Alpine Fault and the plates rub past each other horizontally (i.e., strike-slip)
The largest cities within this high risk zone are the nation's capital, Wellington, followed by Hastings then Napier; all of them have experienced damaging earthquakes.
NOTE: The central part of most cities is comprised mainly of old, vulnerable brick and unreinforced masonry buildings, which are highly susceptible to damage.
UNREINFORCED MASONRY, BRICK OR STONE REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH UNREINFORCED WALLS INTENSITY REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH REINFORCEDWALLS STEEL FRAME ALL METAL & WOOD FRAME VVIVIIVIIIIX 3530 25 20 15 10 5 0 MEAN DAMAGE RATIO, % OF REPLACEMENT VALUE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING EARTHQUAKES SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON- STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CAUSES OF DAMAGE “DISASTER LABORATORIES”
A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external help when three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, landslides,..) intersect at a point in space and time.
Disasters are caused by s ingle- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
THE REASONS ARE... When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards.
THE REASONS ARE... The community is UN- PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence— high-probability of adverse consequences event.
THE REASONS ARE... The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for concerted local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
THE REASONS ARE... The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
THE REASONS ARE... The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
THE ALTERNATIVE TO DISASTER: EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
NEW ZEALAND’S COMMUNITIES DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS QUAKE HAZARDS INVENTORY VULNERABILITY LOCATION EARTHQUAKE RISK RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK QUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE PREPAREDNESS PROTECTION FORECASTS/SCENARIOS EMERGENCY RESPONSE RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION POLICY OPTIONS
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES PREPAREDNESS FOR THE LIKELY GROUND SHAKING AND GROUND FAILURE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES BUILDING CODES AND LIFELINE STANDARDS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
In Christchurch, a city of 372,000, power and water services were knocked out, facades fell off buildings, homes businesses, and bridges were damaged by strong shaking, fires were ignited, and the Christchurch Airport was closed.
IMPACTS Numerous injuries, but no deaths, largely due to the 4:35 a.m. time of occurrence, NOT BECAUSE the buildings were resilient to the strong ground shaking
AFTERSHOCKS OF THE 3 SEPT 2010 QUAKE Christchurch was hit by hundreds of aftershocks after the M7.1 earthquake of 3 September 2010, which exacerbated damage and added new injuries, but no new deaths.
THE TOLL: EXTENSIVE DAMAGE, BUT NO DEATHS The earthquake (and its aftershocks) caused extensive damage to buildings and infrastructure, but no deaths.