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Bell Activity Turn to Chapter 8: Special Senses Complete the worksheet

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Presentation on theme: "Bell Activity Turn to Chapter 8: Special Senses Complete the worksheet"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bell Activity Turn to Chapter 8: Special Senses Complete the worksheet
“I See What Doesn’t Belong”

2 Ambiguous Illusions This man looks like your average Joe right?
But what else is he? Is this a rabbit or a duck?

3 Special Senses Objectives 3.7 Analyze (explain) sensory perceptions.
3.8 Analyze (explain) diseases as related to eachsystem Seeing Hearing Smelling

4 Special Senses Special senses allow body to react to the environment
Body able to see, hear, taste, smell, and to maintain balance Senses occur because the body has structures that receive sensation, nerves carry message to brain, and brain interprets and responds to message

5 The Eye and Vision Sense of sight
Light rays transmitted to the optic nerve Optic nerve relays information to brain for interpretation Eye is well protected by: Bony socket Eyelids and eyelashes Lacrimal glands– tears empty into nasal cavity Conjunctiva– thin membrane lines eyelids

6 Tunics of the Eyeball Sclera Choroid coat Retina

7 Sclera 1. Outer layer 2. White of the eye
3. Tough coating, helps maintain shape of eye 4. Muscles responsible for moving eye attached to sclera = extrinsic muscles

8 Choroid coat 1. Middle layer of eye, contains blood vessels to nourish eyes 2. Opening in front is pupil 3. Colored, muscular layer surrounding pupil is iris 4. Intrinsic muscles – change size of iris to control amount of light entering through pupil

9 Retina 1. Innermost layer 2. Light rays focus image on retina
3. Image travels to the cerebral cortex via optic nerve 4. Rods –special cells sensitive to dim light 5. Cones – special cells sensitive to bright light and color 6. Optic disc – on retina, known as blind spot, nerve fibers that form optic nerve

10 Other Special Structures
Lens 1. Crystalline structure located behind iris and pupil 2. Elastic, disc-shaped, biconvex 3. Situated between the anterior and posterior chambers Anterior Chamber- filled w/ Aqueous humor Posterior Chamber- filled w/ Vitreous humor Muscles

11 Internal Anatomy of Eye

12 Internal Anatomy of Eye

13 Diseases and Abnormal Conditions
Amblyopia – lazy eye Astigmatism Cataract Conjuctivitis – pink eye Glaucoma

14 Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (continued)
Hyperopia – farsightedness Myopia – nearsightedness Presbyopia Strabismus

15 Ophthalmoscope. In addition to examining the cornea, lens, and
vitreous humor for opacities (cloudiness), the examiner can see the blood vessels at the back of the eye (fundus) and note degenerative changes in the retina.

16 The Ear: Hearing and Balance
Controls hearing and balance Sound waves transmitted to the auditory nerve Auditory nerve relays information to the brain for interpretation Consists of the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear

17 Outer Ear Pinna or auricle a. Visible ear b. Collects sound waves
External auditory canal- ear canal Tympanic membrane-– ear drum, separates outer and middle ear

18 Middle Ear 1. Cavity in temporal bone
2. Connects with pharynx by Eustachian tube - which equalizes pressure in the middle ear with outside atmosphere 3. Bones - transmit sound waves from ear drum to inner ear a. Malleus (hammer) b. Incus (anvil) c. Stapes (stirrup)

19 Inner Ear 1. Cochlea - spiral shaped organ of hearing, contains a membranous tube,the cochlear duct – which is filled with fluid that vibrates when soundwaves are transmitted by the stapes 2. Organ of Corti – delicate hairlike cells that pick up vibrations of fluid andtransmit them as a sensory impulse along the auditory nerve to the brain 3. Semicircular canals – three structures in inner ear that contain liquid setin motion by head and body movements 4. Impulses sent to cerebellum to help maintain body balance (equilibrium)

20 Internal Anatomy of Ear

21 Internal Anatomy of Ear

22 Diseases and Abnormal Conditions
Hearing loss Meniere’s disease Otitis externa Otitis media Otosclerosis

23 The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
Taste receptors located on the tongue Four main tastes Sweet Salty Sour Bitter

24 Sense of Smell Nose is the organ of smell
Olfactory receptors in nasal cavity Impulses carried from the olfactory nerve to the brain for interpretation Humans can detect over 6,000 smells Sense of taste and smell related

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