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Implementation of training services in municipalities in energy efficiency in Bosnia-Herzegovina RFP BIH.04-007 Thor Henning Gulbrandsen,

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Presentation on theme: "Implementation of training services in municipalities in energy efficiency in Bosnia-Herzegovina RFP BIH.04-007 Thor Henning Gulbrandsen,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Implementation of training services in municipalities in energy efficiency in Bosnia-Herzegovina RFP BIH.04-007 Thor Henning Gulbrandsen,

2 Building envelope losses Transmission loss is the energy loss you have through the walls and windows and depends on of the insulation quality Infiltration loss is the energy loss you have through the leakages in the building envelope. Ventilation loss is the loss you have through t the ventilation system These losses are temperature dependent

3 Building envelope sealing of windows and doors Good sealing of windows and doors is importand in order to reduce the infintration loss Windows have normally higher U-value than walls so less window space gives lower transmission losses Cold draft from windows and doors is also reducing the feeling of comfort Bad window and door sealing allow dust and moisture to go into the living appartment

4 Building enevelop specific technical regards to brick-and wooden houses Additional insulation of living houses is normally a profitable energy efficiency measure Insulation can be carried out by insulating the internal wall, the external walls or insuflate the cavity between the internal walls and the external walls, with unfixed insulation material Using insulation material, specific attention must be paid to the implementation methods Residental houses from 1925 – 1955 have normally no insulation at all


6 Building envelope insufflation of insulation material in buildings Additional insulation of walls and floors is a combination of energy efficiency, comfort, maintenance and added value of the building In addition to energy saving, a good indoor comfort can be achieved by sealing air leakages and avoid cold air draft Insufflation of insulation material is a well known tecknology in houses in Europe but the work has to be undertaken by certified personnel. The pay back time is about 10 years and the specific investment cost is € 12,5 /m²


8 Building envelop meteorological conditions the wind’s influence on different building constructions Proper placing of houses is crucial in order to take the advantage of the natural parameters which influence the energy consumption and comfort, like sun and wind A house on a hill top will always be cooled down based on the geographical and isothermal conditions Detached houses can be influenced by turbulenced air, which suck the warm insulated air out of the walls

9 Building envelop meteorological conditions the wind pressure suck the heat out of the building construction When it is blowing on one of the wall facade, the wind will develop a over pressure on one side and a under pressure on the other side. This will suck the air out of the house especially if the leakages in doors, windows and walls are considerable

10 Building envelop wind rose The wind rose is an efficient tool to visualize the wind impact in complex terrain It shows the direction from where the wind comes from and the strength of the wind in m/s The wind rose can be available at meteorological stations and as meteorological data The wind rose can also be used to indicate potential diffusion of air borne pollution

11 Building envelope flooring on the ground without thermal bridges A thermal bridge is a part of the building construction where the heat will flow through the concrete and out. Thermal bridges are developing condense and in the winter time the water will freeze and ice formation will occur Ice will also expand and demolish the building construction

12 Heating Heating sources Different fuel carriers Heating recovery technology Maintenance and efficient operation of heating equipment External heating in buildings

13 Heating oil fired boiler system ÷ High maintenance demand Necessary to keep the flue gas temperature > 150°C CO2 promotive Local pollutive Expensive fuel Expensive maintenance + Easy to control No residue from fuel

14 Calculate combustion factor If possible measure the combustion factor: Nf = (100 – (T1-T2) 0,6)/CO2 % Nf = combustion factor in % T1 = Flue gas temperature T2 = Combustion air temperature

15 Heating bio fuel fired boiler ÷ High maintenance demand Poor controlling possibility High risk for overheating Sufficient dryness of firewood Fuel residue + CO2 neutral Local fuel supply Easy to maintain

16 Controlling systems controlling of outlet temperature from boiler systems Proper controlling systems gives accurate temperature, compensated for the outdoor temperature Controlling system with variable heat curve gives optimal operation Outdoor temp. compensation function gives the heat supply a heat flow according to the out door temperature The heating curve can be adjusted according to the buildings characteristic

17 Cooling and ventilation Natural ventilation, has no fans but the air is sucked out of the building trough a ventilation shaft, because warm air is ligther than cold air and will og up (convection heat) Mechanical ventilation consist of an exhaust fan and slits in the windows for air supply Balanced ventilation consist of two fans, one for evacuation of air and one for air supply

18 Cooling buildings Cooling is not common in ordinary living houses, but if you have any kind of ventilation system and if the indoor temperature is warmer than the outdoor temperature, the fans can be used to sypply the inside rooms with cooled air For cooling individual rooms, separate cooling units can be used

19 Heating recovery technology Plate heat exchanger is the most common heat exchanger in ventilation systems in area with odour. The efficiency factor is ± 55%, which is lower than the most other systems Rotary heat exchanger is the most efficient heat exchanger system with a efficiency factor ±80%, but is can not be used in kitchen, bathroom, laboratories and other places whith risk of odour

20 Calculating power factor µ = T2- T1/T3-T1 T1 = outdoor temperature T2 = supply air temperature T3 = extract air temperature

21 Lighting the most common conception in lighting technology Lumen (lm) is the unit which describe the total amount of light which comes from the lighting source Candela (cd) is the power of light which goes in a spesific direction Lux (lx) is the power of light which hit the surface

22 Lighting different types Low pressure natrium High pressure natrium Standard light bulb High pressure mercury bulb Mixed bulbs Halogen bulbs Incandescent

23 Cooking appliances In most countries around the world, gas and bio fuel is the most common fuel carrier for cooking. In Norway electricity is the most common energy for that purpose. Cooking is power (kW) intensive but by using the appliances efficient, both power (kW) and energy (kWh) can be saved. This issue is most interesting when using electricity because high power load will make negative influence on the grid system

24 Water consumption Reduction of water consumption is in many countries more important than doing energy saving. The reason is that many countries are short of fresh water and water purification is cost intensive. Another thing is that all water used has to be handled by the public drainage system, which can be designed for much smaller flow than the real inflow of waste water from the public.

25 Water consumption Water heating is the most power/energy intensive range of use beside general heating itself. Reduction of hot water consumption is therefore a very profitable energy efficient measure. A new energy efficient shower head costs € 12. The pay back time is 3 months All water used in a house has to get out in one or another way. This waste water will fill the drainage system and may create problems for the sewage.

26 Environmental aspects Emission of greenhouse gases and particles from fossil fuelled power stations and local heating are one of the most serious threats to humans health. Fuel switching from fossil fuel carriers to renewable fuel sources is therefore an important measure for sustainable development. Local impact by using fossil fuels is considerable in many countries concerning respiration problems. Many buildings of great value are considerably damaged because of the sulphur influence from fossil fuel burners

27 General maintenance Maintenance is important in order to keep a steady and reliable process on an ultimate level. A break in an industrial process because of bad maintenance can cause serious economical losses. Lack of maintenance in houses and buildings can lead to higher energy consumption, water consumption, bad indoor environment and cost intensive retrofitting. GOOD MAINTENANCE PROTECT VALUES AN SAVE MONEY

28 Introduction to Energy Management Policy, is the the overall planning and targeting for cost reduction included budgets and resources Mapping, is the effort to reveal the saving potential and measures to improve the processes Action plan, is plan for auditing, implementation and commissioning Control system is the quality assurance, technical and economical evaluation Revision is the forces to do improvements based on evaluation

29 Introduction to Energy Management Management performance Policy Organising M&T Information Training


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