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Learning Theory Applied to Teaching. ` Goals for Session  State names of the five theories  Describe each theory briefly  Think about the role of.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Theory Applied to Teaching. ` Goals for Session  State names of the five theories  Describe each theory briefly  Think about the role of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Theory Applied to Teaching

2 `

3 Goals for Session  State names of the five theories  Describe each theory briefly  Think about the role of theory


5 What is learning? Learning is a persisting change in an individual’s understanding, performance or potential brought about by meaningful interaction with his/her environment.

6 What is Learning?UnconsciousIncompetence ConsciousIncompetence ConsciousCompetence UnconsciousCompetence

7 What is a theory? Principle that guides action Specifies instructor’s activities which are more likely to bring about learning in a specific venue

8 Learning Theories  Behavioral  Cognitive  Constructivist  Humanistic  Developmental

9 Behavioral B. F. Skinner, Robert Thorndike Change in observable behavior Objectives written by instructor Instructor provides stimulus, asks for response and reinforces Learner is in third person

10 Instructional Strategies Provide instructional objectives Expect learners to move at own pace Provide information, ask learners to respond Present material in small steps Assess learner frequently Provide immediate feedback that is both positive and constructive Revise instruction based on performance

11 Yogi on Behaviorism “If you don’t know where you are going, you probably won’t get there.”

12 Cognitive Jerome Bruner, David Ausubel, Robert Gagne Learning is meaningful connection to and organization of memory Process of learning connected to content Objectives are general Instructor arranges conditions and helps learner develop structure Learner is in third person

13 Instructional Strategies Assess learner’s prerequisite skills Use advance organizers Provide structure, examples, images Connect new concepts to previous Ask learner to form own questions Ask “What if..?” questions Be as concerned with thought process as with the right answer

14 Yogi on Cognitivism “90% of this game is half mental.”

15 Constructivist Albert Bandura, Lev Vigotsky Learning is a mutual understanding developed by participating in a learning community Objectives not often specified but become apparent as community experiences and discusses Instructor models and reacts Learner is in first person

16 Instructional Strategies Base learning on simulated and/or practical experience Ask learners for their hypotheses Model performance, problem solving Help learners generate links Flip the classroom Facilitate discussions Emphasize cooperation, collaboration Assess learning in context

17 Yogi on Constructivism “You can observe a lot by watching.”

18 Humanistic Carl Rogers, AH Maslow, Malcolm Knowles Learning is satisfying one’s own needs Objectives developed by learner Instructor creates environment, reacts to learner’s needs Learner is in first person

19 Instructional Strategies Develop learning contract with learner Help learners make choices Incorporate learner’s prior experience Refer learner to resources Ask learners to teach each other by presenting to each other Guide group discussions Helps learner evaluate own learning Serve as consultant

20 Yogi on Humanism “ We were lost, but we were making good time.”

21 Developmental Jean Piaget Learning is maturation Learning occurs in stages Objectives based on norms Instructor diagnoses stage and reacts Learner changes from third to first person

22 Instructional Strategies Determine learner’s stage Keep growth chart Emphasize discovery of principles Help learner accept responsibility Change teaching style Directing to facilitating to consulting

23 Yogi on Developmentalism “When you come to a fork in the road, take it.”

24 Points of Agreement Goals are important Organize knowledge from simple to complex Learner must be active Reinforcement Group support Attitude toward learning and context

25 My Advice Systematic design - Beh How learning occurs - Cog Interactions with others - Con Adjusting instruction - Dev Self-determination - Hum

26 Practical Exercise

27 VENUE 1 st year studentsLecture course in Patho-physiology 2rd year studentsAfternoon PBL conferences InternsAttending rounds Senior residentsOut patient clinic FellowsResearch project WHO


29 Yogi says: “I really didn’t say everything I said.”


31 Thank you!

32 Lecture course in Epi/Biostats Disposition conferences Attending clinic Research project Mentoring


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