Presentation on theme: "CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION Unit 2/Part 1. New Taxes The French and Indian War nearly doubled Britain’s national debt. Colonial territories were expanded."— Presentation transcript:
New Taxes The French and Indian War nearly doubled Britain’s national debt. Colonial territories were expanded. Parliament needed to raise taxes to pay debt and protect the colonies. They decided that the colonists could and should pay more.
Significant Taxes Sugar Act Quartering Act – required colonies to provide housing and supplies for the British troops. Stamp Act – required colonists to pay tax on almost all printed materials.
Taxation Without Representation Colonists were angry over the stamp act. They thought it threatened their prosperity and liberty. Colonists questioned Parliament’s right to tax colonies directly. They thought since colonies had no representation in Parliament, then Parliament had no right to tax them. Colonists felt if they accepted the Stamp Act taxes then Parliament would add more taxes. Parliament dismissed the colonial opposition. Their position was that the Empire needed money and Parliament had the right to levy taxes anywhere in the Empire.
Colonial Protests Colonists began to work together to fight the passage of the Stamp Act. Those who opposed the taxes called themselves “Patriots”. Associations known as “Sons of Liberty” were formed. Most famous leader was Samuel Adams (cousin of John Adams) of Boston. Angry crowds assaulted colonists who supported or helped collect taxes. Most violent city was Boston. To control and coordinate protests, the Stamp Act Congress was held in New York City in October 1765. Members of this congress encouraged consumer boycotts of goods imported from Britain. Women played an economic role in the boycott too. Known as “Daughters of Liberty”.
Violence Erupts – In March 1770, colonists threw snowballs and rocks at British soldiers guarding the Customs House. The nervous soldiers fired into the crowd, killing 5 colonists. Patriots called the killings “The Boston Massacre”. The Boston Massacre
Committees Of Correspondence An organized network of committees providing leadership and promoting cooperation. These helped build colonial unity wrote propaganda to support and gain attention & strength for the rebellion
The Boston Tea Party Parliament had taxed tea. Colonists continued to boycott and drink smuggled Dutch tea. This hurt the British East India Company. To help them, Parliament passes a law allowing the company to sell directly to the colonists, which made their tea cheaper than the smuggled tea. The colonists felt that this was the British trying to trick them into paying the tax. They thought it would also hurt wealthy colonists who smuggled tea. On the night of December 16, 1773, Boston Patriots dressed as Indians, boarded 3 British ships full of tea, and dumped the tea into the Boston harbor. This even became known as The Boston Tea Party.
Intolerable Acts Parliament passes Coercive Acts to punish Boston for the Tea Party. Ports were closed to trade, British officials could be tried in Britain for crimes committed in the colonies, and cut off lands claimed by several colonies. Colonists called the legislation The Intolerable Acts. Massachusetts reacted with violence, forced courts of law to shut down, and assaulted anyone who was friendly to Parliament. Some were tar and feathered as punishment.
First Continental Congress All colonies except Georgia met in Philadelphia. Leaders to decide how to deal with the British. The Colonists weren’t represented in Parliament and were becoming resentful. Resentment came as a result of The Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Quartering Act, and most important: TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION Lexington and Concord Two country towns west of Boston. Patriots stockpiling weapons Formed volunteer army (militias) made up of townspeople to protect their own towns. At Lexington, British soldiers ordered militia to disperse. As they did, someone fired a shot. (“shot heard round the world”) 8 colonists are killed. “Redcoats” then marched to Boston fighting in Concord along the way. When British return to Boston they are ambushed by colonists (“minutemen”) Patriots killed or wounded more than 200 British soldiers. British not used to fighting in this manner. Considered a Patriot victory. The Colonies Take Action
The Second Continental Congress May 1775 Delegates from all the colonies assembled in Philadelphia Congress assumed responsibility for the war. Volunteers from the southern and middle colonies joined the Patriot siege of Boston, where British and “loyalists” were. Congress gave command of the Continental Army to George Washington. Some wanted to declare independence from Britain. Most hoped to remain with Britain but not pay taxes to Parliament
Olive Branch Petition In July, 1775, after 3 months of bloodshed, Congress sent an “Olive Branch Petition” to King George III. The petition reaffirmed the Colonists allegiance to the King but not to Parliament. The King rejected the petition and sent more troops to Boston.
Independence In Jan. 1776, Thomas Paine writes Common Sense It was a pamphlet in favor of Independence. In it, he is critical of Britain and, in a forceful way, suggests that America should revolt. By the spring of 1776, Paine’s ideas had built momentum for American Independence. A committee is chosen by the Congress to draft a document declaring American independence. Thomas Jefferson drafted the document, drawing upon Paine’s ideas. Two days later, Congress approves the Declaration of Independence.