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The American Revolution 1776 The Crossing The Patriot (edited version)

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1 The American Revolution 1776 The Crossing The Patriot (edited version)

2 Background Jamestown established in 1607 Independence Day is July 4, 1776 What happened in between? – Many colonies were established Proprietary Royal Charter – Regions New England Middle Southern

3 Background- Government By 1776 there were 13 colonies with similar governmental structures – (1) the governor, appointed by the Crown or by the proprietor, or proprietors – (2) the council, also appointed by the Crown – (3) the assembly or house of representatives, elected by the people. These three, corresponding to the king and the two houses of Parliament, resembled the British government. (All but Rhode Island and Connecticut)

4 Background- Government (Cont) Colonies had been left alone (Salutary Neglect), for the most part, until the French and Indian War (actually between the British and French) – New Laws Quartering Act – Colonists had to house British Soldiers Royal Proclamation of 1763 – No new settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains

5 Background- Economic Mercantilism – Colonies existed to provide raw materials to England – The benefit was to the English, not the colonists. French and Indian War – Expensive- Britain demanded increased amounts of money from the colonies Sugar Act, Currency Act, Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, Tea Act (AKA Intolerable Acts) TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION

6 Colonists Begin to Question Britain Committees of Correspondence- beginning in 1772 were set up in colonies, often by legislators, to coordinate action against Great Britain Sons of Liberty- began in 1765 in Boston- tradesmen who banned together to protest the Stamp Act. Soon spread to every colony. Often times were violent in their protests, but used the media to spread their messages. Daughter of Liberty- Patriot women who urged boycotts British goods by weaving their own cloth and creating American clothing. Abigail Adams was a strong supporter. Also supported troops during the war.

7 Colonial Responses First Continental Congress 1774 – Boycott on British goods – Boston Tea Party – Lexington and Concord (April 1775) British troops attempt to seize gunpowder and capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock 8 Americans killed at Lexington Concord- retreat of British troops who lost 70 men

8 Colonial Responses Second Continental Congress – May 1775 – All 13 Colonies represented – Continental Army George Washington= head – Most just wanted CHANGES to British Policy Bunker Hill – Battle between Continental and British Armies – King George declared the colonists in a state of rebellion

9 Two Groups Emerged Loyalists- members who wanted British POLICIES to change toward the American Colony, but to remain LOYAL to the King of Great Britain (around 15 – 20% of the colonists are estimated to have been Loyalists) Patriots- members who opposed the King and wanted independence and resulted to violence to get it. (Made of various members of society)

10 The Move Toward Independence Thomas Paine – Urged colonists to fight for independence – It was simply “common sense” that they should be free and independent June 11 – July 4, 1776 – Committee to draft a Declaration of Independence was established – Thomas Jefferson wrote it – Many revisions before approval on July 2 – Signed on July 4!

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