9 Personality- Psychodynamic Id Contains instincts which are biological such as aggression.Exists completely in our unconscious mindPropelled by the pleasure principlethe principle that the id seeks gratification* We are born with this developed already—What does a baby do when they want something?
10 Personality- Psychodynamic Ego Partly in the conscious mind~ partly in the unconsciousDriven by the reality principleThe ego is aware of the real environment and the need to fit into itDelays gratificationAges (1-3)
11 Personality- Psychodynamic Superego Partly in the conscious mind~ partly in the unconsciousDriven by the morality principleRepresents the internalizing of our parents’ rules & the rules of societyDisobeying the superego causes anxietyDevelops between ages 3-5
12 “Keep studying. You know it is the right thing to do.” You are studying for your Psychology exam.Your id tells you, “Go toLola’s party?”Your superego replies,“Keep studying. You knowit is the right thing to do.”Your ego compromises, “We’ll study for two hours. Drop by the party and then get to bed.”
14 The tripartite structure of personality The psychological apparatus is in conflictID >>>> EGO <<<< SuperEGOneurotic moralconflict conflictUnconscious CONFLICT can be RESOLVED BYDREAMSNEUROTIC SYMPTOMSDEFENCE MECHANISMS
15 Freud Personality set in childhood Psychosexual stage theory Believed that sexual urges were an important determinate of a person’s personalityStages named for the erogenous zone involvedAn area of the body from which we receive pleasure
16 Freud Oral phase- 0-18 months of life Anal phase- 18 to 24 months Phallic phase- 3-5 yearsOedipus Crisis /Electra CrisisPenis EnvyCastration Anxiety ~ IdentificationLatency- 5 years-pubertyGenital- Puberty and beyond
17 FreudFixations result from psychic energy, or libido, getting stuck at a stageOral fixationAnal retentiveAnal expulsiveWe either over or under compensate
18 Oral Stage (Age 0 - 1) Erogenous Zone in Focus: Mouth Gender Identity: Flexible & no clear differences for boy or girls.No sense of being masculine or feminine.Gratifying Activities: Feeding & mouth movementsInteraction with the Environment: mother's breast :food ,drink, & love/hate.id demands immediate gratification, responsive nurturing is key.Both insufficient and forceful feeding can result in fixation in this stage.Regression
19 Symptoms of Oral Fixation SmokingConstant chewing on gum, pens, pencils, etc.Nail bitingOvereating & Eating disordersDrinkingSarcasm ("the biting personality")Verbal hostilityNarcissismPassivity
20 Anal Stage 1.5 - 2 Erogenous Zone in Focus: Anus Gender Identity: Flexible & no clear differences for boy or girls.No sense of being masculine or feminine.Gratifying Activities: Bowel movement and withholding of poo.Interaction with the Environment: Toilet training: taught when, where, and how excretion is deemed appropriate by society.Notice the pleasure and displeasure associated with bowel movements. Gift/DefyDiscover ability to control bowel movements.Power over their parents.EGO develops
21 Anal FixationAnal-Expulsive Personality: Parents are too lenient: the child will derive pleasure and success from the expulsion.Excessively sloppy, disorganized, reckless, careless, and defiant.Anal-Retentive Personality: Receives excessive pressure and punishment - will experience anxiety over bowl movements = pleasure to withhold.Obsessively clean and orderly, and intolerant of those who aren't. Very careful, stingy, withholding, obstinate, meticulous, conforming and passive- aggressive.Tight-Arse!
22 Stage 3 : The PHALLIC stage Age 3 – 5/6 Erogenous Zone in Focus: GenitalsGender Identity Starts!: Pay attention to others’ genitals and notice physical differences between males and females.The main force behind children’s gender development is their relationships with their parents. The mother is the first love object for both boys and girls, which for boys turns to lust at age 3.The Superego develops when:The Oedipus conflict (boys)The Electra conflict (girls)Is resolved
23 The Oedipus complex All young boys experience this conflict. Develop a passionate desire for their mother.Want to possess their mother for themselves.See father as rival: jealousy.Wishes father dead.Afraid father will discover their desire for their mother and punish them by removing prize possession: castration anxiety.Recognise father more powerful than them as has a bigger penis.Father likely to have reprimanded child for playing with himself.Believe father has castrated mother.Fear: castrationConflict: between lust for mother & fear of father.
24 The Electra complex All young girls experience this conflict. Develop a passionate desire for their father.Resent mother as realise don’t have a penis, believe they were castrated and blame their mother for this.Long for a penis: penis envy.Discover can’t have a penis so substitute desire for a penis with desire for a baby.Want their father to provide them with a son so lust after father.Fear: losing mother’s love.Conflict: between lust for father & fear of losing mother's love.
25 SUMMARY of the CONFLICTS Child has unconscious sexual desire for opposite sex parentFears same sex parent and may wish them out of the wayCastration anxiety (boy) fear of punishment from the fathers for their desire for the mothers.Penis Envy (girl): had a penis that was removed and blame mother.Adopts characteristics of same sex parentto prevent castration (boy)to have a child by her father (girl)
26 Phallic FixationAnxiety and guilty feelings about sex, fear of castration (men), narcissistic personality, homosexuality, curiosity, exhibitionism.Women NEVER progress past this stage fully and will always maintain a sense of envy and inferiority.
27 IdentificationTowards the end of the Phallic stage, children resolve their conflicts by identifying with the same sex parent.Identification develops a superego (adopting that parent’s morals), their gender identity and role.
28 Single Parent Families Unable to experience Oedipus/Electra complex.Don’t resolve conflicts necessary to develop a healthy gender identity.Boys: homosexual
29 Latency (Age 5/6 - puberty) Erogenous Zone in Focus: NoneInteractions with the Environment: Sexual feelings are suppressed = focus their energy on other aspects of life: learning, adjusting to the social environment outside of home, absorbing the culture, forming beliefs and values, developing same-sex friendships, engaging in sports, etc.Lasts five to six years, until puberty: capable of reproduction = sexuality is re-awakened.
30 Genital Stage (puberty +) Erogenous Zone in Focus: GenitalGratifying Activities: Masturbation and heterosexual relationshipsInteraction with the Environment: Renewed sexual interest and desire, and the pursuit of relationships.Fixations: No fixation. Damaged already done E.g. attractions to the opposite sex can be a source of anxiety at this stage if the person has not successfully resolved the Oedipal (or Electra) conflict at the phallic stage.
31 8. Researching Core Study Read the study that has been ed to you.