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Developmental Approach

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Presentation on theme: "Developmental Approach"— Presentation transcript:

1 Developmental Approach
Core Study 2: Freud BACKGROUND TO STUDY…

2 Developmental Approach
Core Studies: 1. Samuel and Bryant (1984) 2. Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) 3. Freud (1909)

3 Content Page SLIDE(S) 1. Main assumptions of the approach
2. Defining Key Words 3. Theories of Behaviour 4. Related Study 5. Researching Core Study

4 1. Main Assumptions of the developmental approach

5 Psychodynamic Perspective
Sigmund Freud Freud’s Famous Couch

6 Describe this picture

7 The psychoanalytic theory Sigmund Freud
The tripartite structure of human personality Tripartite means - in three parts


9 Personality- Psychodynamic Id
Contains instincts which are biological such as aggression. Exists completely in our unconscious mind Propelled by the pleasure principle the principle that the id seeks gratification * We are born with this developed already—What does a baby do when they want something?

10 Personality- Psychodynamic Ego
Partly in the conscious mind~ partly in the unconscious Driven by the reality principle The ego is aware of the real environment and the need to fit into it Delays gratification Ages (1-3)

11 Personality- Psychodynamic Superego
Partly in the conscious mind~ partly in the unconscious Driven by the morality principle Represents the internalizing of our parents’ rules & the rules of society Disobeying the superego causes anxiety Develops between ages 3-5

12 “Keep studying. You know it is the right thing to do.”
You are studying for your Psychology exam. Your id tells you, “Go to Lola’s party?” Your superego replies, “Keep studying. You know it is the right thing to do.” Your ego compromises, “We’ll study for two hours. Drop by the party and then get to bed.”

13 Superego Id EGO

14 The tripartite structure of personality
The psychological apparatus is in conflict ID >>>> EGO <<<< SuperEGO neurotic moral conflict conflict Unconscious CONFLICT can be RESOLVED BY DREAMS NEUROTIC SYMPTOMS DEFENCE MECHANISMS

15 Freud Personality set in childhood Psychosexual stage theory
Believed that sexual urges were an important determinate of a person’s personality Stages named for the erogenous zone involved An area of the body from which we receive pleasure

16 Freud Oral phase- 0-18 months of life Anal phase- 18 to 24 months
Phallic phase- 3-5 years Oedipus Crisis /Electra Crisis Penis Envy Castration Anxiety ~ Identification Latency- 5 years-puberty Genital- Puberty and beyond

17 Freud Fixations result from psychic energy, or libido, getting stuck at a stage Oral fixation Anal retentive Anal expulsive We either over or under compensate

18 Oral Stage (Age 0 - 1) Erogenous Zone in Focus: Mouth
Gender Identity: Flexible & no clear differences for boy or girls. No sense of being masculine or feminine. Gratifying Activities: Feeding & mouth movements Interaction with the Environment: mother's breast :food ,drink, & love/hate. id demands immediate gratification, responsive nurturing is key. Both insufficient and forceful feeding can result in fixation in this stage. Regression

19 Symptoms of Oral Fixation
Smoking Constant chewing on gum, pens, pencils, etc. Nail biting Overeating & Eating disorders Drinking Sarcasm ("the biting personality") Verbal hostility Narcissism Passivity

20 Anal Stage 1.5 - 2 Erogenous Zone in Focus: Anus
Gender Identity: Flexible & no clear differences for boy or girls. No sense of being masculine or feminine. Gratifying Activities: Bowel movement and withholding of poo. Interaction with the Environment: Toilet training: taught when, where, and how excretion is deemed appropriate by society. Notice the pleasure and displeasure associated with bowel movements. Gift/Defy Discover ability to control bowel movements. Power over their parents. EGO develops

21 Anal Fixation Anal-Expulsive Personality: Parents are too lenient: the child will derive pleasure and success from the expulsion. Excessively sloppy, disorganized, reckless, careless, and defiant. Anal-Retentive Personality: Receives excessive pressure and punishment - will experience anxiety over bowl movements = pleasure to withhold. Obsessively clean and orderly, and intolerant of those who aren't. Very careful, stingy, withholding, obstinate, meticulous, conforming and passive- aggressive. Tight-Arse!

22 Stage 3 : The PHALLIC stage Age 3 – 5/6
Erogenous Zone in Focus: Genitals Gender Identity Starts!: Pay attention to others’ genitals and notice physical differences between males and females. The main force behind children’s gender development is their relationships with their parents. The mother is the first love object for both boys and girls, which for boys turns to lust at age 3. The Superego develops when: The Oedipus conflict (boys) The Electra conflict (girls) Is resolved

23 The Oedipus complex All young boys experience this conflict.
Develop a passionate desire for their mother. Want to possess their mother for themselves. See father as rival: jealousy. Wishes father dead. Afraid father will discover their desire for their mother and punish them by removing prize possession: castration anxiety. Recognise father more powerful than them as has a bigger penis. Father likely to have reprimanded child for playing with himself. Believe father has castrated mother. Fear: castration Conflict: between lust for mother & fear of father.

24 The Electra complex All young girls experience this conflict.
Develop a passionate desire for their father. Resent mother as realise don’t have a penis, believe they were castrated and blame their mother for this. Long for a penis: penis envy. Discover can’t have a penis so substitute desire for a penis with desire for a baby. Want their father to provide them with a son so lust after father. Fear: losing mother’s love. Conflict: between lust for father & fear of losing mother's love.

Child has unconscious sexual desire for opposite sex parent Fears same sex parent and may wish them out of the way Castration anxiety (boy) fear of punishment from the fathers for their desire for the mothers. Penis Envy (girl): had a penis that was removed and blame mother. Adopts characteristics of same sex parent to prevent castration (boy) to have a child by her father (girl)

26 Phallic Fixation Anxiety and guilty feelings about sex, fear of castration (men), narcissistic personality, homosexuality, curiosity, exhibitionism. Women NEVER progress past this stage fully and will always maintain a sense of envy and inferiority.

27 Identification Towards the end of the Phallic stage, children resolve their conflicts by identifying with the same sex parent. Identification develops a superego (adopting that parent’s morals), their gender identity and role.

28 Single Parent Families
Unable to experience Oedipus/Electra complex. Don’t resolve conflicts necessary to develop a healthy gender identity. Boys: homosexual

29 Latency (Age 5/6 - puberty)
Erogenous Zone in Focus: None Interactions with the Environment: Sexual feelings are suppressed = focus their energy on other aspects of life: learning, adjusting to the social environment outside of home, absorbing the culture, forming beliefs and values, developing same-sex friendships, engaging in sports, etc. Lasts five to six years, until puberty: capable of reproduction = sexuality is re-awakened.

30 Genital Stage (puberty +)
Erogenous Zone in Focus: Genital Gratifying Activities: Masturbation and heterosexual relationships Interaction with the Environment: Renewed sexual interest and desire, and the pursuit of relationships. Fixations: No fixation. Damaged already done E.g. attractions to the opposite sex can be a source of anxiety at this stage if the person has not successfully resolved the Oedipal (or Electra) conflict at the phallic stage.

31 8. Researching Core Study
Read the study that has been ed to you.

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