Presentation on theme: "CH 21, sect. 2 PP Notes East Africa: Both Germany and Great Britain tried to control this area. Germany wanted to develop colonies, Britain wanted."— Presentation transcript:
CH 21, sect. 2 PP Notes East Africa: Both Germany and Great Britain tried to control this area. Germany wanted to develop colonies, Britain wanted to have their colonies connect from S. Africa to Egypt. Berlin Conference held in 1884-1885: Countries of Europe met to decide who would control Africa. No Africans were present at the conference.
South Africa: People from Holland had settled in S. Africa – they were called Boers or Afrikaners. In the early 1800’s Britain seized the area and began encouraging settlement. This made the Boers angry. Boers then fled north, this was called the Great Trek -- They formed two independent republics called the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
South Africa cont.: Boers believed that white superiority was ordained by god. Put native Africans on reservations, also had major conflicts with the Zulu people. Zulu were led by Shaka who created an empire near the Boers. Late 1800’s the British had to come in and defeat the Zulu.
Cecil Rhodes: Founded gold and diamond companies that had made him rich. He gained control of an area north of the Transvaal which he called Rhodesia. Wanted to build a railroad from Cairo, Egypt to Capetown, South Africa. Was forced to resign as prime minister of Cape Colony when it was discovered he planned to overthrow the Boer gov’t.
Boer War: 1899-1902 Boers were angry about Rhodes’ attempts to overthrow their gov’t. Boers used guerrilla warfare which angered the British. British responded by burning farms and forcing Boer women and children into concentration camps. Boers were defeated and in 1910 the Union of South Africa was created.
Colonial Rule in Africa: By 1914 all of Africa was controlled by European countries. Only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free. British model: Used indirect rule, but British administrators made all major decisions. British model favored the African elite and certain tribes – this led to class and tribal warfare.
Colonial Rule in Africa cont. French model: Colony was ran by a governor general. French tried to assimilate Africans into French culture. Africans could run for office and serve in the French Assembly in Paris.
Rise of African Nationalism: Some Africans became educated in Western ideas and values. They began to resent European occupation. Europeans had segregated churches, clubs, and schools. Africans began to form political parties that wanted an end to European rule.