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Comma Usage By Alfred Taylor

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1 Comma Usage By Alfred Taylor

2 Comma Usage English is not a single language. English is composed of a Germanic syntax, a French Vocabulary, and Latin usage rules. This means, English uses French words in a German sentence structure with Latin punctuation rules. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com2

3 Comma Usage Samuel Johnson wrote the first English dictionary in 1755. Because most educated people at that time knew Latin, he decided that English would use Latin usage rules. That is why English usage rules don’t make sense. They are borrowed from a foreign language. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com3

4 Comma Usage Before a discussion of English comma usage rules will make sense, a short review of parts of speech is necessary. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com4

5 Comma Usage Noun- a person, place, object, or idea. Verb- an action or state of existence. Adjective- describes a noun. Adverb- describes a verb. Article- “A” indefinite “the” definite www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com5

6 Comma Usage Subject- completes the action in a sentence. Direct Object- receives the action in a sentence. Indirect Object- the person or thing an action was done for. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com6

7 Comma Usage Clause- a group of related words that contain a verb and form a thought. Phrase- a group of related words that do not contain a verb, but do express a thought. It is very important to be able to tell the difference between a phrase and a clause. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com7

8 Comma Usage Oscar ate a donut. Once upon a time. It was a dark and stormy night. Alfred bought Thuy a diamond ring. Turn off the cell phone. When Oscar ate a donut. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com8

9 Comma Usage Oscar ate a donut. Clause Once upon a time. Phrase It was a dark and stormy night. Clause Alfred bought Thuy a diamond ring. Clause Turn off the cell phone. Clause When Oscar ate a donut. Phrase www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com9

10 Comma Usage Compound Sentence. Use a comma between two clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction: for, or, nor, yet, but, and, so. clause1, cc clause2. Oscar ate a donut, so he skipped lunch. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com10

11 Comma Usage It is important to know the difference between a compound verb and a compound sentence. Oscar ate a donut and skipped lunch. Compound Verb Oscar ate a donut, and he skipped lunch. Compound Sentence www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com11

12 Comma Usage Write one example of a compound sentence for each of the coordinating conjunctions: for, or, nor, yet, but, and, so. Don’t forget the comma in front of the coordinating conjunction. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com12

13 Comma Usage I watched TV all day, for I had the flu. I could have pizza, or I could have salad. I didn’t eat lunch, nor did I eat dinner. It was a rainy day, and we stayed indoors. I wanted chicken, but I ate salad instead. It rained all day, yet we had fun. The chicken got well, so we had salad. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com13

14 Comma Usage Complex Sentence. When a dependent clause precedes an independent clause, separate the clauses with a comma. A dependent clause is a phrase. Dependent Clause, Independent Clause. When Oscar ate a donut, he skipped lunch. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com14

15 Comma Usage If the independent clause precedes the dependent clause, no comma is necessary. Oscar skipped lunch because he ate a donut. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com15

16 Comma Usage It doesn’t matter what type of phrase precedes the independent clause, the comma still goes in the same place. In the room, the students ignored the teacher. However, they failed the test. Wanting to pass, the girl cheated. To be a good friend, a boy helped her. Without the answers, they both failed. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com16

17 Comma Usage Coordinate Adjectives. Use a comma between two adjectives that modify the same noun. Adj1, Adj2 Noun. The hot, juicy burger tasted great. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com17

18 Comma Usage It is important to know when adjectives are coordinate. Can I flip them? Can I put “and” between them? The prominent public official. Not Coordinate The giant, smelly rat. Coordinate www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com18

19 Comma Usage Items in a Series Place commas between a series of nouns, or phrases in a sentence. The comma before the “and” is not optional. Item1, Item2, and Item3 We ate potato salad, franks, and beans for Memorial Day. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com19

20 Comma Usage Omitting the comma before the ‘and’ in a series of items can create confusion. We ate potato salad, franks and beans for Memorial Day. Were the beans and franks separate or together? www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com20

21 Comma Usage Note: If even one item in the series contains a comma, they must be separated by semicolons, not commas. I had lunch with my wife, Thuy, my boss, Athena, Yalt, a scientist, and Abby, my mom’s dog. How many people did I have lunch with? www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com21

22 Comma Usage I had lunch with my wife, Thuy; my boss, Athena; Yalt, a scientist; and Abby, my mom’s dog. Now it is clear I had lunch with four people. (yes, dogs are people.) www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com22

23 Comma Usage Quotations Use a comma to separate quoted material from non-quoted material. “Quote,” Tag. Tag, “Quote.” “Quote,” Tag. “Quote.” www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com23

24 Comma Usage Note: Commas and periods always go inside quotation marks. If quoted material that is attached to a tag that makes it a complete sentence, end with a period, not a comma. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com24

25 Comma Usage “Hi,” Oscar said. Oscar said, “I want a donut.” “Wow,” Oscar said. “That’s a big donut.” www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com25

26 Comma Usage Addresses: Use a comma to separate the name of a city from the state or country. City, State Zip City, Country I’m from Orlando, Florida. I’ve been to London, England. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com26

27 Comma Usage Degrees or Titles: Use a comma to separate a person’s title or degree from his or her name. Dr. Quinn, MD, was a fictional doctor. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, was troubled by ghosts. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com27

28 Comma Usage Comma of Contradiction: When making a statement that contradicts itself, separate the parts with a comma. The giant bug-eyed monster is safe, isn’t it? It was Oscar, not Sam, who ate the donut. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com28

29 Comma Usage Places where a comma is not used: – In the salutation of a business letter. Use a colon. – Between the state and zip code in an address. – To introduce a list. Use a colon. – Before an conjunctive adverb. Use a semi-colon. – To separate a subject from its verb or a verb from its object. www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com29

30 Comma Usage Remember, there is no easy way to learn comma rules. They have to be memorized. I hope you have enjoyed this presentation www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com30

31 Comma Usage The End www.booksbyalfredtaylor.com31

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