Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 American Families in Social Context. Chapter Outline Historical Events Age Structure Race and Ethnicity Other Social Characteristics."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Outline Historical Events Age Structure Race and Ethnicity Other Social Characteristics The Economy and Social Class Technology and the Family
Families and Historical Events During the Depression, couples delayed marriage and parenthood and had fewer children. During WWII, married women were encouraged to get defense jobs and place children in daycare.
Families and Historical Events 1950’s - people married young and had large families. 1960’s and 1970’s - marriage rates decline and divorce rates increase. The present historical moment is one of adaptation to cultural changes and the economic ups and downs affected by globalization of the economy.
Families and Age Structure Results of Increased longevity: More years invested in education Longer marriages Longer retirement Increased need for care for the elderly
Families and Race/Ethnicity In 2002 the nation was: 68% non-Hispanic white 13.4% Hispanic 12.7% black 4% Asian 1% American Indian/Alaska Native Less than 1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander
African American Families 1/2 of black married couples earned $50,000 or more in 2001, 1/4 earned $75,000 or more. 32% of black children (32%) lives in poverty. Blacks are more than twice as likely as whites to suffer the death of an infant. Only 35% of African American children are living with married parents, compared to 76% of white (non-Hispanic) and 65% of Hispanic children.
African American Families More egalitarian gender roles and more likely to care for aging family members. African American families are child- focused; the extended family and community are involved in caring for children; their survival and well-being do not depend on the parents alone.
Hispanic families Latinos are the largest racial/ethnic group in the U.S. after non-Hispanic whites. 2/3 of the current Latino population are immigrants or children of immigrants, 1/3 were born in the United States to U.S.-born parents. 53% of the recent growth of the Hispanic population is due to international migration, 47% is due to births to those already here.
Hispanic families Even in married-couple families, 20% of children are poor, due to low earnings of Hispanic parents. Latinos are as likely as the U.S. average to be married and much less likely to be divorced. 63% of Hispanic children live with married- couple parents; 25% with single mothers (some cohabiting); and 5% with single fathers (almost 1/2 cohabiting).
Hispanic families Larger households than other ethnic groups. Lower infant mortality rates than native- born whites. Studies comparing African Americans, Mexican Americans, and whites found that Mexican American men, like black men, place a high value on marriage.
Asian and Pacific Islander Families Fastest growing of all racial/ethnic groups, although their numbers are small. 83% of Asian American children live in married-couple families. Most likely of all groups to be caring for older family members. Total fertility rate lower than that of the U.S. as a whole.
Asian and Pacific Islander Families Higher rates of intermarriage and less residentially segregated than other minorities. More cohesive and less individualistic than white families. Women are increasingly independent.
Native American Families In the latter half of the 19th century, Indians were forcibly removed to reservations. They were encouraged to place infants for adoption with white families; many of those adoptions appear to have been forced. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 gave tribes communal responsibility for tribal children.
Native American Families 1/4 of Native Americans had incomes of more than $50,000 in 1999, but poverty rates of children are high. The child poverty rate reaches 50% in female- headed families. Children and youth often move between households of extended family members, and, due to high rates of alcoholism, children may be placed with foster families, Indian or non-Indian.
Native American Families The culture gives great respect to elders as leaders and mentors. Older women may be relied upon for care of grandchildren. 60% of American Indians live in urban areas. They may return to the reservation on ceremonial occasions; to visit friends and family, as a refuge in times of hardship; and to expose their children to tribal traditions.
Miller’s Typology of Urban Native American Families Traditional families retain Indian ways, with minimal influence from the urban settings, Bicultural families develop a blend of native beliefs and necessary adaptations.
Miller’s Typology of Urban Native American Families Transitional families have lost Indian culture and are becoming assimilated to the white working class. Marginal families have become alienated from Indian and mainstream cultures.
White Families Non-Hispanic whites continue are the majority in the United States at 68% of the population. Much that is written about “the family” is grounded in patterns common among middle- class whites. The non-Hispanic white family appears as more likely to be a married couple and less likely to have family members beyond the nuclear family residing with it.
White Families White families have higher incomes than all groups but Asians, and lower poverty rates than all other racial/ethnic groups. In 2002, 76% of white children lived with two parents. White respondents reported less caregiving to aging family members; they are also less likely to rely on family members as child-care providers.
Multicultural Families 7% of married-couple households include spouses whose racial/ethnic identities differ. This is more common in unmarried couples: 15% of opposite-sex partners and male same-sex partners and 13% of female partners report different racial/ethnic identities. Between 1977 and 1997 the percentage of babies born to people of different races more than doubled.
Four Ways of Dealing With Racial Identity 1. Border Identity (58%) - Being biracial places them between social categories. 2. Singular Identity (17%) - Identify as either black or white
Four Ways of Dealing With Racial Identity 3. Protean Identity (13%) - Sense of identity varies with the group they interacting with. 4. Transcendent Identity (4%) - Argue that they (and others) had no race; all people should be seen as individuals.
Religion 80% of American adults surveyed in 2001 indicated a religious identification. “Born-again” Christians are less likely to cohabite, but their divorce rates do not differ. More than half of Jews do not have Jewish spouses, and in those marriages, more than 2/3 of children are not being raised as Jews. Islamic families maintain a religious family life in a culture that does not share their beliefs.
The Economy and Social Class Social class, one’s overall status in a society, may be as important as race or ethnicity in affecting people’s choices. Life chances—opportunities for education and work, whether one can afford to marry, schools children attend, and health care—depend on family economic resources. A study found class to be more important than race in terms of parental values and interactions with children.
Economic Change and Inequality The distribution of income in the United States is highly unequal. In 2002, the top 20% of U.S. families received 49.7% of the nation’s total income, while the poorest 20% received just 3.5%. Over the past thirty years, the rich have gotten richer, and the poor have gotten poorer.
Poverty Rates by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1965–2002.
1. _______________ are now the largest minority group in the United States. a) Latinos b) African Americans c) Asian Americans d) American Indians
Answer: a Latinos are now the largest minority group in the United States.
2. Much that is written about “the family” or “the American family” is grounded in common patterns among: a) middle class whites. b) African Americans. c) upper class Asian Americans d) Native Americans.
Answer: a Much that is written about “the family” or “the American family” is grounded in common patterns among middle class whites.
3. __________ percent of American adults surveyed in 2001 indicated a religious identification. a) Fifty b) Sixty c) Seventy d) Eighty
Answer: d Eighty percent of American adults surveyed in 2001 indicated a religious identification.