2 Chapter Outline 2.1 Frequency Distributions and Their Graphs 2.2 More Graphs and Displays2.3 Measures of Central Tendency2.4 Measures of Variation2.5 Measures of PositionLarson/Farber 4th ed.
3 Frequency Distributions and Their Graphs Section 2.1Frequency Distributionsand Their GraphsLarson/Farber 4th ed.
4 Section 2.1 Objectives Construct frequency distributions Construct frequency histograms, frequency polygons, relative frequency histograms, and ogivesLarson/Farber 4th ed.
5 Frequency Distribution A table that shows classes or intervals of data with a count of the number of entries in each class.The frequency, f, of a class is the number of data entries in the class.ClassFrequency, f1 – 556 – 10811 – 15616 – 2021 – 2526 – 304Class width 6 – 1 = 5Lower classlimitsUpper classlimitsLarson/Farber 4th ed.
6 Constructing a Frequency Distribution Decide on the number of classes.Usually between 5 and 20; otherwise, it may be difficult to detect any patterns.Find the class width.Determine the range of the data.Divide the range by the number of classes.Round up to the next convenient number.Larson/Farber 4th ed.
7 Constructing a Frequency Distribution Find the class limits.You can use the minimum data entry as the lower limit of the first class.Find the remaining lower limits (add the class width to the lower limit of the preceding class).Find the upper limit of the first class. Remember that classes cannot overlap.Find the remaining upper class limits.Larson/Farber 4th ed.
8 Constructing a Frequency Distribution Make a tally mark for each data entry in the row of the appropriate class.Count the tally marks to find the total frequency f for each class.Larson/Farber 4th ed.
9 Example: Constructing a Frequency Distribution The following sample data set lists the number of minutes 50 Internet subscribers spent on the Internet during their most recent session. Construct a frequency distribution that has seven classes.Larson/Farber 4th ed.
10 Solution: Constructing a Frequency Distribution Number of classes = 7 (given)Find the class widthRound up to 12Larson/Farber 4th ed.
11 Solution: Constructing a Frequency Distribution Use 7 (minimum value) as first lower limit. Add the class width of 12 to get the lower limit of the next class.= 19Find the remaining lower limits.Lower limitUpper limit7Class width = 12193143556779Larson/Farber 4th ed.
12 Solution: Constructing a Frequency Distribution The upper limit of the first class is 18 (one less than the lower limit of the second class). Add the class width of 12 to get the upper limit of the next class = 30 Find the remaining upper limits.Lower limitUpper limit7193143556779Class width = 1218304254667890Larson/Farber 4th ed.
13 Solution: Constructing a Frequency Distribution Make a tally mark for each data entry in the row of the appropriate class.Count the tally marks to find the total frequency f for each class.ClassTallyFrequency, f7 – 18IIII I619 – 30IIII IIII1031 – 42IIII IIII III1343 – 54IIII III855 – 66IIII567 – 7879 – 90II2Σf = 50Larson/Farber 4th ed.
14 Determining the Midpoint Midpoint of a classClassMidpointFrequency, f7 – 18619 – 301031 – 4213Class width = 12Larson/Farber 4th ed.
15 Determining the Relative Frequency Relative Frequency of a classPortion or percentage of the data that falls in a particular class.ClassFrequency, fRelative Frequency7 – 18619 – 301031 – 4213Larson/Farber 4th ed.
16 Determining the Cumulative Frequency Cumulative frequency of a classThe sum of the frequency for that class and all previous classes.ClassFrequency, fCumulative frequency7 – 18619 – 301031 – 42136+16+29Larson/Farber 4th ed.
19 Graphs of Frequency Distributions Frequency HistogramA bar graph that represents the frequency distribution.The horizontal scale is quantitative and measures the data values.The vertical scale measures the frequencies of the classes.Consecutive bars must touch.data valuesfrequencyLarson/Farber 4th ed.
20 Class Boundaries Class boundaries The numbers that separate classes without forming gaps between them.The distance from the upper limit of the first class to the lower limit of the second class is 19 – 18 = 1.Half this distance is 0.5.ClassBoundariesFrequency, f7 – 18619 – 301031 – 42136.5 – 18.5First class lower boundary = 7 – 0.5 = 6.5First class upper boundary = = 18.5Larson/Farber 4th ed.
22 Example: Frequency Histogram Construct a frequency histogram for the Internet usage frequency distribution.ClassClass boundariesMidpointFrequency, f7 – 186.5 – 18.512.5619 – 3018.5 – 30.524.51031 – 4230.5 – 42.536.51343 – 5442.5 – 54.548.5855 – 6654.5 – 66.560.5567 – 7866.5 – 78.572.579 – 9078.5 – 90.584.52Larson/Farber 4th ed.
23 Solution: Frequency Histogram (using Midpoints) Larson/Farber 4th ed.
24 Solution: Frequency Histogram (using class boundaries) You can see that more than half of the subscribers spent between 19 and 54 minutes on the Internet during their most recent session.Larson/Farber 4th ed.
25 Graphs of Frequency Distributions Frequency PolygonA line graph that emphasizes the continuous change in frequencies.data valuesfrequencyLarson/Farber 4th ed.
26 Example: Frequency Polygon Construct a frequency polygon for the Internet usage frequency distribution.ClassMidpointFrequency, f7 – 1812.5619 – 3024.51031 – 4236.51343 – 5448.5855 – 6660.5567 – 7872.579 – 9084.52Larson/Farber 4th ed.
27 Solution: Frequency Polygon The graph should begin and end on the horizontal axis, so extend the left side to one class width before the first class midpoint and extend the right side to one class width after the last class midpoint.You can see that the frequency of subscribers increases up to 36.5 minutes and then decreases.Larson/Farber 4th ed.
28 Graphs of Frequency Distributions Relative Frequency HistogramHas the same shape and the same horizontal scale as the corresponding frequency histogram.The vertical scale measures the relative frequencies, not frequencies.data valuesrelative frequencyLarson/Farber 4th ed.
29 Example: Relative Frequency Histogram Construct a relative frequency histogram for the Internet usage frequency distribution.ClassClass boundariesFrequency, fRelativefrequency7 – 186.5 – 18.560.1219 – 3018.5 – 30.5100.2031 – 4230.5 – 42.5130.2643 – 5442.5 – 54.580.1655 – 6654.5 – 66.550.1067 – 7866.5 – 78.579 – 9078.5 – 90.520.04Larson/Farber 4th ed.
30 Solution: Relative Frequency Histogram From this graph you can see that 20% of Internet subscribers spent between 18.5 minutes and 30.5 minutes online.Larson/Farber 4th ed.
31 Graphs of Frequency Distributions Cumulative Frequency Graph or OgiveA line graph that displays the cumulative frequency of each class at its upper class boundary.The upper boundaries are marked on the horizontal axis.The cumulative frequencies are marked on the vertical axis.data valuescumulative frequencyLarson/Farber 4th ed.
32 Constructing an OgiveConstruct a frequency distribution that includes cumulative frequencies as one of the columns.Specify the horizontal and vertical scales.The horizontal scale consists of the upper class boundaries.The vertical scale measures cumulative frequencies.Plot points that represent the upper class boundaries and their corresponding cumulative frequencies.Larson/Farber 4th ed.
33 Constructing an Ogive Connect the points in order from left to right. The graph should start at the lower boundary of the first class (cumulative frequency is zero) and should end at the upper boundary of the last class (cumulative frequency is equal to the sample size).Larson/Farber 4th ed.
34 Example: OgiveConstruct an ogive for the Internet usage frequency distribution.ClassClass boundariesFrequency, fCumulative frequency7 – 186.5 – 18.5619 – 3018.5 – 30.5101631 – 4230.5 – 42.5132943 – 5442.5 – 54.583755 – 6654.5 – 66.554267 – 7866.5 – 78.54879 – 9078.5 – 90.5250Larson/Farber 4th ed.
35 Solution: OgiveFrom the ogive, you can see that about 40 subscribers spent 60 minutes or less online during their last session. The greatest increase in usage occurs between 30.5 minutes and 42.5 minutes.Larson/Farber 4th ed.
36 Section 2.1 Summary Constructed frequency distributions Constructed frequency histograms, frequency polygons, relative frequency histograms and ogivesLarson/Farber 4th ed.