Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Development Q2: Discuss how social & environmental variables may affect cognitive development."— Presentation transcript:
Cognitive Development Q2: Discuss how social & environmental variables may affect cognitive development.
Approach Intro Background- social and environmental variables Social: SES- family income and education, parental nurturance Positive environmental variables: stimulation, enrichment, nutrition Negative environmental variables: pollution, malnutrition. stress Thesis: Social and environmental variables may affect cognitive development. Body Social- SES Environmental- enrichment and nurturing Conclusion
Social Variables SES- linked to parenting & enrichment One of the main risk factors in children’s cognitive development Tied to poor nutrition, stressful home environment, exposure to crime, lack of access to quality education Application: need for prenatal care and school lunch programs National Center for Children in Poverty (2002) 1/3 rd of children from low-income communities who enter kindergarten are behind their peers By their 4 th year, 50% are don’t meet standard reading proficiency Moscovici (1993)- lay claim to the higher wisdom of common sense Children who are loved and well cared for will given healthy food and opportunities Isolating one variable (parenting, poverty) and attributing it to cognitive development lacks some degree of validity Bhoomika (2008)- effect of malnutrition on cognitive performance in 20 Indian children (but older children showed less impairment) Parental participation was twice as predictive of academic success as socioeconomic status Reading at home enhances success (Tizard, 1982)
SES continued Wertheimer (2003) Children from poor families are less likely to be labeled as academically gifted Less likely to participate in extra-curricular activities more likely to repeat grades More likely to suffer from learning disabilities Generally less likely to attend university Schoon (2002)- British study found increased risk of poor academic performance in poor families
Environmental Variables-enrichment and nurturing Animal research-enrichment environments increases dendritic branching and stress interferes with normal brain development Rosenzweig, Bennet and Diamond, 1972 Liu, 2000-prolonged maternal separation affected stress regulation and memory (hippocampus) Farah, 2008 Aim: To investigate the relationship between environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on cognitive development Longitudinal study of 110 AA MS children Positive correlation between environmental stimulation and language development and between parental nurturance and memory Abecedarian Project (Pungello, 2006) 111 infants enrolled from 1972-1977 Half received enrichment; other half as a control Demonstrated beneficial effects of health care, nutrition and education
Evaluation Strengths Evidence Application Government funding of early childhood education and nutrition programs Limitations- no clear cause and effect Link between socio-economic status and individual development is still not fully understood Seems to be a cumulative effect Privileged children have more educational opportunities access to role models and greater expectations Poverty does not determine one’s success in life Werner & Smith (1992)- longitudinal study of high-risk children: 1/3 rd had adjusted well to adult life