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How does a preschool child’s body change? Early Childhood: Age 2 to 6 Biosocial Development.

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Presentation on theme: "How does a preschool child’s body change? Early Childhood: Age 2 to 6 Biosocial Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 How does a preschool child’s body change? Early Childhood: Age 2 to 6 Biosocial Development


3 What happens when children grow? Body slims down – taller & thinner Center of gravity lowers Enables swinging, gymnastics, etc. 2 years old6 years old

4 How does nutrition effect children? Overweight children = overweight adults Diabetes Heart disease

5 How do cavities & gum disease effect children? Early tooth decay = most common disease in young children in developed countries Harms permanent teeth Jaw malformation, speech Overall health

6 Do you remember? What body changes do children go through from 2 – 6 years old? What is the effect of being overweight in young children? What is the effect of poor dental hygiene in young children?

7 What about brain development?

8 Myelination Myelin coating of axons Speeds brain processing Focused on the motor and sensory areas

9 Corpus callosum Connects right and left hemispheres Increases coordination Increases communication between both sides of the brain Lateralization Each side specializing

10 Left hemisphere controls right side Left is language & speech Left is logical Detailed analysis Detail focused

11 Right hemisphere controls left side Creative Emotional Big picture focused

12 All thinking required both sides of the brain

13 Prefrontal cortex “Executive” brain Planning, analyzing, prioritizing Immaturity = Impulsiveness & tendency to persevere (keep repeating) E.g. “Are we there yet?” Longest period of development Matures during adolescence

14 Do you remember? What does myelination do? What does the corpus callosum do? What do the left and right hemispheres do? What does the prefrontal cortex do?

15 Emotions Based on the limbic system Amygdala Hippocampus Hypothalamus Aid in emotional expression and control

16 Amygdala Registers positive & negative emotions Related to night terrors Children model after parents

17 Hippocampus Memory Can work with amygdala to recall emotions

18 Hypothalamus Produces hormones to activate parts of the body in response to signals from the amygdala and hippocampus. E.g. stress and the fight or flight syndrome

19 Motor skills Gross Large muscles E.g. riding a bike, swinging, kicking a ball Fine Small muscles Writing, drawing, pouring juice Girls tend to develop 6 mos. Earlier than boys

20 Do you remember? What does the limbic system do? What produces emotions? What helps with memory? What helps you in “fight or flight” situations? What are gross and fine motor skills?

21 Injuries and abuse

22 Three levels of prevention for avoidable injuries Primary prevention Preventing a high risk situation from ever existing E.g. Sidewalks and overpasses Secondary prevention Reducing the risk in an existing high risk situation Salt on roads Crossing guards Tertiary prevention Reducing damage after injury Emergency room procedures HEPA filters for children with asthma

23 What are the types of child maltreatment? Child abuse Deliberate physical, emotional, or sexual harm Child neglect Failure to meet physical or emotional needs Law required reporting suspected maltreatment Abuse Neglect

24 What are the symptoms of maltreatment? Injuries Fantasy play – violence & sexual Hostility Impulsive reactions E.g. Cringing Fear of caregiver Hypervigilance

25 Do you remember? What are the three levels of prevention of childhood injuries? Give examples of each Which level pf prevention reduces injury after injury? What is the difference between child abuse and child neglect? Give examples of each What symptoms would you look for in children you suspect of maltreatment?


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