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Impacts of Undernutrition Text adapted from The World Food Problem Leathers & Foster, 2009 ttp:// Toward-Undernutrition/dp/1588266389.

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Presentation on theme: "Impacts of Undernutrition Text adapted from The World Food Problem Leathers & Foster, 2009 ttp:// Toward-Undernutrition/dp/1588266389."— Presentation transcript:

1 Impacts of Undernutrition Text adapted from The World Food Problem Leathers & Foster, 2009 ttp:// Toward-Undernutrition/dp/1588266389

2 Low Birth Weight Babies Born to undernourished mothers –PEM –Iron deficiency Much more likely to die in first year Early nutrition in girl’s life can affect baby

3 Delayed Menarche Undernourished girls produce less estrogen –Associated with body fat Lower estrogen delays the age of menstruation: –USA: 12.8 yrs old –Rural India: 14.4 yrs old –Rwanda: 17 yrs old

4 Breast Feeding as Birth Control (Lactational Amenorrhea) Prolactin stimulates breast milk –Also suppresses ovulation Producing breast milk also reduces fat storage –Thus reduces estrogen –Thus impedes ovulation Very effective for 6-12 months after birth Most important form of birth control in developing world

5 Breast Feeding Improves baby’s health Contains all nutrients Fights infection –Antibodies in milk Guaranteed food supply –No competition with other family members Sanitary food supply 1.5 million children in developing world die –because they are not breast fed

6 AIDS and Breast Feeding Breast milk can pass AIDS virus More likely if mother has vitamin A deficiency –32% if deficiency –7% if normal Bottle alternative may be less safe –6x higher risk of death due to diarrhea or respiratory diseases UNICEF recommends mothers with AIDS to breast feed –for first 6 months Mother and child with AIDS

7 Impact of Undernutrition on Infant Mortality Probability of dying by age 5 –15.5% in least developed nations –0.85% in industrialized nations Diarrhea leading killer –Pneumonia –Influenza –Bronchitis –Whooping cough –Measles Malnutrition –contributes to ½ of these deaths in developing world Infant Mortality mortality.gif

8 Impact of Undernutrition on Intellectual Development Protein supplements given during pregnancy –Improved cognitive function in children through age 6-7 yrs. IQ reduced by child’s deficiency in –Iron –Iodine –Protein

9 Impact of Undernutrition on Education Missed school days Special education needs Low test scores Repeated grades Attention deficit disorder –Decreased attention span –Impaired memory –Disobedience –Distractibility –Reduced progress

10 Impact of Undernutrition on Labor Productivity Work capacity drops severely –Calorie deficiency –Iron deficiency More likely unemployed Taller individuals –Better nourished –More productive –Stronger

11 Undernutrition in the Developing World 20% of the developing world suffers from undernutrition Madigascar undernourished children

12 Number of Undernourished Were Dropping 918 million –1970s 906 million –1980s 800 million –2000 Biggest drop in Asia –25% drop Least drop sub-Saharan Africa –5% drop

13 Seasonality of Undernutrition Grain prices lowest right after harvest –Nutrition good 2,000 Calories/day in Mozambique –Then supplies dwindle Grain prices highest before harvest –Hungry season 1,430 Calories/day in Mozambique –Foraging for wild foods Termites, caterpillars, grasshoppers, locusts

14 Criteria for worst-off countries Calories/person –D.R. Congo, Burundi, Eritrea, Somalia, Afghanistan, Tajikistan Child nutrition –North Korea, Afghanistan, Burundi, Eritrea, Somalia Mortality rates for children –Sierra Leone, Angola, Afghanistan Low Birth weight babies –Bangladesh, Haiti, Yemen, India Rural Bangladesh Women

15 What Kinds of People are Undernourished? Rural poor –65% of people are rural in low income countries Children –Especially weaning Pregnant, Lactating women Girls –Food diverted to brothers Uneducated families Large families Elderly

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