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Chapter 14 Physical Growth and Development from 4-6

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Physical Growth and Development from 4-6"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Physical Growth and Development from 4-6
14.2 Providing Care for Children from 4-6

2 Height and Weight Slightly slower compared to ages 1-3
Average yearly increase in height is 2 ½ to 3 inches Gain about 4-5 pounds Smaller or larger gains are common Boys tend to be slightly taller and heavier than girls

3 Average heights and weights
Years Height (inches) Weight (pounds) 4 40.7 36.0 5 43.5 40.5 6 46.0 45.0

4 Teamwork Activity Divide into 4 groups
Measure the height of each person and calculate the group’s average height and range How do the averages and ranges compare? Group Avg Ht Ht Range 1 2 3 4

5 Proportion and Posture
Body becomes straighter and slimmer between 4th and 7th birthday Abdomen flattens Shoulders widen Chest broadens and flattens Neck becomes longer Legs lengthen rapidly, grow straighter and firmer Balance and coordination improve

6 Think about it How might caregivers treat a child who is much taller or shorter than average? How could this affect the child? What can caregivers do to prevent this problem?

7 Teeth Begin to lose primary teeth around age 6
32 permanent teeth replace primary teeth First permanent teeth to arrive are “6 year old molars” or “first molars” 2 upper, 2 lower, back of the 20 primary teeth Act as a lock to keep other teeth in place Primary teeth are lost in the order they came in

8 Teeth

9 Thumb Sucking 4-6 will continue to suck their thumb
Way to handle tension or comfort themselves Forcing a child to quit can cause more problems than the habit itself Usually stop on their own

10 Motor Skills Large and small improve significantly
Love physical activity, very energetic Learn to throw and catch large and small balls at age 4 Improved speed and coordination by age 5 Movements are smoothly coordinated by age 6

11 Continued 4 and 5 year olds show improved dexterity, improved hand-eye coordination Children need plenty of opportunities for skill development Time and space to run, jump, climb for large motor skills Color, paint, cutting, and writing for small motor skills Children with well developed small motor skills find learning to read to and write easier

12 How Motor Skills Develop
Age Small Motor Skills *Large Motor Skills 4 *lace shoes *dress and undress self *cuts on line with scissors *gallops and hops *jumps forward as well as in place *throws overhand with body control 5 *ties shoelaces *draws recognizable person *skillfully picks up very small items *buttons, snaps and zips clothing *Stands and balances on tiptoes for short period and skips, alternating feet 6 *Build block towers to shoulder height *Cuts, pastes, molds, and colors skillfully *Writes entire words *Throws and catches ball with more ease and accuracy *Rides a bicycle

13 Tie It Up How would you teach a 5 year old to tie shoelaces?
Make a simple chart and give a visual demonstration of the steps you would use. Make sure your verbal explanation can be understood by a child during the demonstration. Write your verbal explanation with your chart and turn in. You may work with one partner.

14 Hand Preference What inconveniences might a left-handed person face in a right-handed world?

15 Hand Preference Consistently use the same hand by age 5
Becomes the most skillful Ambidextrous- use both hands with equal skill Research still unclear on how hand preference develops What do you think?

16 Hand Preference Write the following sentence on a sheet of paper:
Mrs. Yarbrough is the best teacher I have ever had. Now write the same sentence with the opposite hand! What was the experience like? How did it make you feel? What correlations can you make between writing with your opposite hand and a child learning to write?

17 14.2 Providing Care for Children from 4-6

18 Feeding Nutritious foods supply energy needed for growth, learning, and activity The amount of food needed depends on height, weight, and physical activity Eating 5-6 small meals and snacks a day rather than 3 can do better for children because they provide a constant level of energy and their stomachs are small

19 Poor Nutrition Poor nutrition- not getting the key nutrients needed through food Causes of poor nutrition Lack of money Caregiver do not understand the need for good nutrition Setting an example with poor eating habits Allowed to choose their own food

20 What are some places that sell prepared food that children can eat?
What makes them popular? What types of food are available? Do they provide good nutrition, how can it be improved?

21 Negative Effects of Poor Nutrition
Less resistance to colds and illness Growth can be limited Learning can be difficult because they are tired and easily distracted

22 Weight Problems Can look chunky or slim and still be healthy
Doctor or dietitian can determine if there is a weight problem Can decide what eating and activity changes need to be made What works for adults may not be appropriate for children

23 Continued When a child consistently consumes more calories than the body uses, the extra calories are stored as fat A child who is underweight is not eating enough food to supply energy needs Overweight and underweight result from long term eating habits Depends not only on quantity, but quality as well Eating healthy and physical activity go together

24 Promoting Health Create a poster that promotes and shows some type of physical activity that children ages 4-6 would participate in. Imagine that the poster will hang up inside a gym, PE classroom, childcare center, or after school program. The design should be eye catching, colorful, and appeal to ages 4-6.

25 Teaching Children About Nutrition
Nutrition lessons learned between 4-6 will stay with children through life Children make nutrition decisions on their own when they attend school

26 Nutrition at Home Help grocery shop and put away groceries
Help care for a garden Wash fruits and vegetables Help with simple cooking tasks Makes them feel proud of their contributions Positive time working with caregiver Improve small motor skills

27 Nutrition at School Eat lunch from home or one from school
What they are given to eat and what they actually eat can be different Traded or thrown away

28 How to Help Pack a Lunch Let them choose their own lunch box
Send different foods each day Make foods easy to eat Finger foods are convenient Sandwiches can get boring Sweets don’t have to be “sugary” foods Surprise such as a note or special treat

29 Design a Healthy Lunch Create a lunch that you would pack for your 5-6 year old child. The lunch should demonstrate balanced nutrition, be colorful, have a variety of shapes and textures, and be easy to eat. Decorate your lunch bag to make it appealing to the child. What else can you add to make it special?

30 Teaching Self-Care Skills
Keeping clean, dressing themselves, and caring for clothes increasingly improves

31 Washing and Bathing Bathing has lost its “fun” by this age
Set up and maintain a hygiene routine Behavior will become more accepted Need praise to continue with tasks Find ways to make it fun

32 Brushing Teeth Should develop into a routine
Instruct how to effectively brush and floss teeth Tooth decay is a concern because permanent teeth are coming in Dentist might recommend sealants- thin plastic coatings that prevent plaque from developing Use a toothpaste with fluoride- strengthens the outer coating of the teeth

33 Basic Rules of Cleanliness

34 Dressing and Choosing Clothes
Can easily dress themselves Have difficulty in matching clothes Can help select coordinating outfits and store them together Comfort, durability, and economy are guidelines for choosing clothes

35 Continued Two other factors in selecting clothes:
Definite likes and dislikes Can become attached to a favorite garment Group identification- a feeling of belonging Desire to wear clothes that are popular with others

36 Caring for Clothes Once they begin to care about what they wear, they will want to care for their clothes They can fold and hang up clothes Put dirty items in a certain place Make sure storage is within reach to put clothes away Helps increase independence and responsibility

37 Sleeping Afternoon naps no longer exist
Generally more cooperative about going to bed Usually do not use a lot of delaying tactics Might still want a bedtime story Helps develop an interest in reading

38 Toileting Few accidents
If accidents do occur, the child is usually concentrating fully on an activity Might be in a new place and scared to ask where the bathroom is Sickness can lead to accidents Persistent problems should be checked by a doctor

39 Steps to Minimize Accidents
Have the child go to the bathroom before leaving home Help the child find the bathroom at a new place Keep an extra outfit available in case an accident does happen

40 Nightly Self-Care Routine
Develop a plan for your child’s nightly routine It can include self-care skills and some skills that require parental help Make it attractive so that you would hang it in your child’s room

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