Presentation on theme: "The High to Late Middle Ages High Middle Ages 1000-1300 Late Middle Ages 1300-1500 Y Feudalism losing its place as the basis of society Y Rise of nation-states."— Presentation transcript:
The High to Late Middle Ages High Middle Ages 1000-1300 Late Middle Ages 1300-1500 Y Feudalism losing its place as the basis of society Y Rise of nation-states Y What is a nation-state? Centralized authority over a state and united by cultural identity. JCase Study: Watch England (in brief) N Fall of Roman Empire, overrun by Anglos, Saxons and Vikings N European identity emerged with the Norman conquest by William the Conqueror in 1066 N 1215 English king John forced to sign the Magna Carta by powerful nobles N Enter the 100 Year’s War, emerge a centralized nation state
National Monarchies England: Early Middle Ages: Anglo-Saxon and Viking invasions High Middle Ages: England now had stronger kings with centralized authority and many loyal barons. England became the first truly unified state under William the Conqueror. In 1066 he brought the Normans, descendents of the Vikings, across and conquered Harold, the Saxon King
The Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest of Britain in 1066 AD. William the Conqueror (aka William of Normandy) invaded England and in the Battle of Hastings, he defeats his rival and claims himself King of England. Although William is the King of England, he also controls lands in France. From here on out, it is English rulers’ goal to control lands in both England and France.
King John and the Magna Carta 1215 By 1215, the English monarchs are well established. Famous couple King Henry II and Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine Produced Richard the Lionhearted and King John (Prince Lackland!!!) King John- wages unsuccessful wars to gain land in France Thus raises taxes & quarrels with the Pope Irate nobles force John to Runnymede to sign the Magna Carta Key contribution: establishes notion of limited government used later in history
I, King John, accept that I have to govern according to the law. So I agree: 1.Not to imprison nobles without trial 2.That trials must be in courts; not held in secret by me 3.To have fair taxation for the nobles 4.To let freemen travel wherever they like 5.Not to interfere in Church matters 6.Not to seize crops without paying for them …. and lot more things too!! The Magna Carta- in modern day terms
By the 1300’s England and France at war over land once more. This time a century of war will change the face of Europe forever ….. The Hundred Year’s War
The Hundred Years War The term "Hundred Years War" was a historical term used by historians to describe a series of events in the 14 th and 15 th centuries. The conflict was between France and England, lasting 116 years, though there were long periods between battles. It was fought primarily over claims by the English kings to the French throne.
Root: 1. Desire for land and Power A. Desire to maintain control, even expand Some English kings even marry into the French nobility and gain more lands through marriage. King Henry II does this and therefore he is king of England and a vassal in France.
Root: Desire for land and Power B. Disruption of English wool trade in Flanders Wool from England was made into cloth in Flanders (modern day Belgium) When the French attempted to control Flanders, the wool trade was disrupted, causing a problem for the English king whose revenues came to a large degree from a tax on wool going to Flanders
C. Controversy Over Succession King Philip IV Charles of Valois Philip of Valois Isabella of FranceEdward II of England Edward III King of France- French law forbade inheritance Through the female line. So the French selected Charles
Following the death of King Philip IV in 1314, the French nobility selected Philip of Valois, a nephew of the last king through the male line to become the new king. Y He was chosen in preference to King Edward III of England, whose mother was the daughter of the late king. In 1340, Edward III claimed the title “King of France.” and the war starts… Controversy Over Succession
A Struggle for National Identity France was NOT a united country before the war began. The French king only controlled about half of the country.
Military Characteristics The War was a series of short raids and expeditions punctuated by a few major battles, marked off by truces or ineffective treaties. Y The relative strengths of each country dictated the sporadic nature of the struggle.
French Advantages Population of about 16,000,000. Far richer and more populous than England. At one point, the French fielded an army of over 50,000 at most, Britain mustered only 32,000. Heavier armor
British Advantages Weapons Technologies- longbow In almost every engagement, the English were outnumbered. Y Britain’s most successful strategies: / Avoid pitched battles. / Engage in quick, profitable raids N Steal what you can. N Destroy everything else. N Capture enemy knights to hold for ransom.
The beginning of the end of classic chivalry. French knights were exhausted from riding all day to the battle field, only to have to then storm up a hill while being cut down by English archers. The battle also saw the first use of cannons on a European battlefield. The outnumbered English completely decimated the larger French army. The French suffered over 15,000 casualties compared to just a few hundred English. Many French nobles are captured and held for ransom following the battle. The Battle of Crecy, 1346
The Effective Use of the Cannon at Crecy, 1 346
The Cannon Long tubular piece of artillery that uses gunpowder to launch a projectile. The cannon transforms siege tactics and the ways forts will be built to withstand such power. Later the large cannons would be replaced by smaller cannons with wheels that were much more maneuverable.
Edwards the III son, Edward IV (known as the “Black Prince of Whales” due to his choice of armor) invaded France from Gascony. The Black Prince’s army soundly defeated the French army due to a new technology, the longbow. The Black Prince was also able to capture the new king of France, John II, and force him to sign a treaty that gave French lands to the English. Without a king, France plunges into chaos. The Battle of Poitiers, 1356
The use of the English defensive position was the use of the longbow. Its arrows had more penetrating power than a bolt from a crossbow. Y Could pierce an inch of wood or the armor of a knight at 200 yards! A longbow could be fired more rapidly. Y 6 arrows per minute. The Longbow as a Weapon
King Henry V of England Renewed his family’s claim to the French throne. At Agincourt in 1415, the English, led by Henry himself, goaded a larger French army into attacking a fortified English position. Y With the aid of the dukes of Burgundy, Henry gained control over Normandy, Paris, and much of northern France!
Treaty of Troyes (1420) Charles VI’s son [the future Charles VII], was declared illegitimate and disinherited. Henry V married Catherine, the daughter of Charles VI. Y Henry was declared the legitimate heir to the French throne! A final English victory seemed assured, but both Charles VI and Henry V died in 1422. This left Henry’s infant son, Henry VI [r. 1422- 1461], to inherit BOTH thrones. Charles VI Charles VII Henry VCatherine
The French “Reconquest” The two kings’ deaths ushered in the final stage of the 100 Years’ War [1422-1453]. Y Even though in 1428 the military and political power seemed firmly in British hands, the French reversed the situation. In 1429, with the aid of the mysterious Joan of Arc, the French king, Charles VII, was able to raise the English siege of Orleans. Y This began the reconquest of the north of France.
Joan of Arc (1412 - 1432) The daughter of prosperous peasants from an area of Burgundy that had suffered under the English. Like many medieval mystics, she reported regular visions of divine revelation. Y Her “voices” told her to go to the king and assist him in driving out the English. She dressed like a man and was Charles’ most charismatic and feared military leader!
Siege of Orleans: The Turning Point Joan of Arc leads the siege against the English stronghold. Joan is wounded during the battle but her faith and charisma help lead the French to a victory. The first major French success to follow the crushing defeat at Agincourt in 1415.
Joan Announces the Capture of Orleans to the King
Joan of Arc (1412 - 1432) She brought inspiration and a sense of national identity and self-confidence. With her aid, the king was crowned at Reims [ending the “disinheritance”]. She was captured during an attack on Paris and fell into English hands. Y Because of her “unnatural dress” and claim to divine guidance, she was condemned and burned as a heretic in 1432. Y She instantly became a symbol of French resistance.
The End of the War Despite Joan’s capture, the French advance continued. By 1450 the English had lost all their major centers except Calais. In 1453 the French armies captured an English-held fortress at Castillon. Y This was the last battle of the war. There was not treaty, only a cessation of hostilities.
The Hundred Years War Rise of nation-states Y What is a nation-state? Centralized authority over a state and united by cultural identity. Y Gives strong national identities to both England and France. Saw the introduction of new weapons such as the longbow, gunpowder and the cannon. Military tactics would in turn be changed. (No more knights in heavy armor on horseback). Both countries see the weakening of feudal lords and the rise of peasantry which would eventually lead to a middle class. Along with the war, plague and famine would lead people to look for answers that the Church could not provide. This shifted people’s thinking and paved the way for the Reformation.
France Becomes a Unified Nation! France in 1453