Presentation on theme: "The Hundred Years War I will be able to: Describe the significance of the Hundred Years War Explain the causes of the war, the effects of the long bow,"— Presentation transcript:
The Hundred Years War I will be able to: Describe the significance of the Hundred Years War Explain the causes of the war, the effects of the long bow, and the impact of the war
The Hundred Years War 1337-1453, 100 Years War? Causes –King of England married to first daughter of the King of France, who also has sons. –King of France dies. –Who gets the land?
French Lands Belonging to English Kings A longer standing issue was the status of lands within France that belonged to English kings. Edward was actually a vassal of Philip VI, holding sizable French territories as fiefs from the king of France [it went back to the Norman conquest].
Military Characteristics The War was a series of short raids and expeditions punctuated by a few major battles, marked off by truces or ineffective treaties.
French Advantages Population of about 16,000,000. Far richer and more populous than England. At one point, the French fielded an army of over 50,000 at most, Britain mustered only 32,000.
English Advantages Weapons Technologies. In almost every engagement, the English were outnumbered. –England’s most successful strategies: / Avoid pitched battles. / Engage in quick, profitable raids –Steal what you can. Destroy everything else. –Capture enemy knights to hold for ransom.
Stage One of the War (1337-1360) King Edward III of England invades France and captures King John II of France. He is ransomed. Result of stage one: England captures ½ of France.
The use of the English defensive position was the use of the longbow. Its arrows had more penetrating power than a bolt from a crossbow. –Could pierce an inch of wood or the armor of a knight at 200 yards! A longbow could be fired more rapidly. –6 arrows per minute. The Longbow as a Weapon
The British Longbow: The Battle of Poitiers, 1356
The Effective Use of the Cannon at Poitiers, 1 356
Stage Two 1361 - 1396 King Charles V of France retakes all of the French lands from the English. French Flag Richard II
Stage Three (1397-1420) King Henry V of England invades France and forces King Charles VII of France to sign a treaty giving him his daughter. Meaning? King Charles VII of France agrees, but King Henry V of England dies before Charles, so his son, Henry VI takes over. Fighting Continues…..why? Result? England takes over 2/3 of France.
King Henry V (r. 1412 - 1422 ) At Agincourt in 1415, the English, led by Henry himself, goaded a larger French army into attacking a fortified English position. –With the aid of the dukes of Burgundy, Henry gained control over Normandy, Paris, and much of northern France!
Stage Three 1397 - 1420 English nationalistic feelings soared when they heard of the stunting victory of King Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt Henry V’s 8,000 soldiers defeated Charles VI’s 50,000 French troops
The Treaty of Troyes is signed after the Battle of Agincourt Charles VI who suffered from periods of insanity gave his daughter Katherine in marriage to Henry V Henry V would inherit France after the death of Charles VI Charles VI cut his son Charles (VII) the dauphin (French heir to the throne) out of inheriting France Charles VI
Stage Four 1421 - 1453 Henry V and Charles VI both die in 1422 Henry VI of England is only 9 months old A young French girl, Joan of Arc, felt moved by God to rescue France from the English The Dukes of Burgundy frequently sided with the English
Joan of Arc (1412 - 1432) The daughter of prosperous peasants from an area of Burgundy that had suffered under the English. Like many medieval mystics, she reported regular visions of divine revelation. She dressed like a man and was Charles’ most charismatic and feared military leader!
Joan of Arc brings a spirit of nationalism to the French The “voices” Joan heard told her to go to Charles the dauphin and aid him in driving the English from France She helps end the English siege of Orleans With Joan’s aid, Charles was crowned king at Reims in 1429 Joan, referred to as “the Maid”
Joan is captured and tried In 1430 Joan is captured and turned over to English church authorities She is charged with heresy and witchcraft because of her “unnatural dress” and claim to divine guidance, she was condemned and burned at the stake as a heretic in 1431. Charles VII does nothing to save her but he does win the Hundred Years War In 1920, Joan is declared a saint as the church retracts its judgment
Results of the 100 Years War New Style of Warfare –Paid soldiers –Heavy armor –Canons Nationalism – fighting to defend/protect your country.
Additional facts Nationalism – a feeling of loyalty and patriotism to one’s own land and people Nationalism will continue in France after Joan’s death Calais is the only territory in France that the French will not be able to win back New weapons such as the longbow & cannons lessened the importance of armored knights & castles