IV. Political & Military Transformations A.Monarchies, Nobles and Clergy 1.Limits on power of Monarchs Limited tax collecting abilities Power of nobles -Land -Knights Church -Land -Tax exemptions Independent towns -Charters granted independence
IV. Political & Military Transformations 2. Anglo-Saxon England In 1066 the Anglo-Saxon King Edward died without an heir Council of Nobles chose Edward’s brother-in- law, Harold, to rule Duke William of Normandy (northern France) also claimed a right to rule.
IV. Political & Military Transformations 3. Norman Conquest Duke William raised an army and sailed to England Defeated Harold at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Duke William became King William I of England (William the Conqueror)
IV. Political & Military Transformations 4.Growth of Royal Power Granted fiefs to the church and other nobles Kept large amounts of land for himself. Built many stone castles on his land -Monitored who built their own castles All lords swear loyalty directly to the King
IV. Political & Military Transformations 5. Taxation Domesday Book -Complete census of the kingdom -List of all land and buildings in England -Used for taxation Royal exchequer -Royal treasury, taxes go directly to the King.
IV. Political & Military Transformational 6. Henry II reformed legal system sent out traveling judges to enforce royal laws. Common Law -system based on custom and court rulings. -Applied to all of England Jury System -Determined who should be brought to trial (like today’s grand jury) -Consisted of 12 neighbors, who judged guilt or innocence (Like today’s trial jury)
IV. Political & Military Transformational 7. King John (r. 1199-1216) King Henry’s son, John faced 3 powerful enemies King Phillip II of France conflict over the English Kings lands in Normandy Lost a war with Phillip, lands in France (1214) Pope Innocent III John rejected the Popes pick for archbishop of Canterbury John excommunicated In response, John gave England to the pope, had to pay a yearly fee to Rome to rent the territory as a fief (1213) English Nobles to pay for the wars with France John had to raise taxes after the war was lost, Normandy was no longer a source of tax income for England the nobles we not willing to allow King John to keep raising taxes
IV. Political & Military Transformational 8. The Magna Carta The English Church and Nobles were upset at King John. a group of rebellious nobles cornered the King, and forced him to sign the Magna Carta, or great charter (1215).
IV. Political & Military Transformational Read: The Magna Carta Answer Questions on a separate sheet of paper
Compare the growth of royal power in England and France. What methods did monarchs in both kingdoms use to increase royal power?
IV. Political & Military Transformations B. The Hundred Years War 1337 -1453 1.Background Power of French king against vassals -Included king of England (Normandy), Flanders, Brittany and Burgundy Grew out of a marriage alliance -French princess married English King Edward II -Son, Edward III claimed French throne
IV. Political & Military Transformations 2. Technology and the Decline of the Knights Crossbows -Arrow could pierce armor, reinforced French Calvary Longbows -Shoot farther and more rapidly than crossbow -Decimated French calvary Gunpowder -Firearms could penetrate armor -Cannons could knock down castle walls -First used at Battle of Agincourt in 1415 Commoners could defeat knights on the battle field
IV. Political & Military Transformations 3. Joan of Arc Young French girl Believed she received instructions from God Donned knights armor, rallied French troops Defeated English army in 1429 Captured by English Burned at the stake in 1431
C. New Monarchies in France 1.What were characteristics of the “new monarchies” 2.How were monarchs able to consolidate control?