2 ObjectivesIdentify the categories of internal combustion engine systems in class notes.Identify the components of the primary or compression systems.Describe the components of an engine’s operating system.
3 Categories of internal combustion engine systems Primary systemOperating systemsAccessory systems
4 Primary SystemCreates the engine compression and converts the energy of combustion to mechanical energy.Also referred to as the compression system.
5 Operating Systems Perform other engine functions. Engine will not operate without operating systems.Also referred to as auxiliary systems.Examples: electrical system, cooling systems, etc.
6 Accessory Systems Not necessary for engine operation. When they fail, the engine is still operable.Example: power steering system
7 Components of Primary System Pistonpiston ringsCylinderHead gasketsCylinder headValvesIntake and exhaustValve springsSpring retainersValve guidesCamshaft
8 Components of Operating System Air intake system-functions to provide a source of clean air necessary for the combustion of the air-fuel mixture.Air cleaner- filtering device located on the outside of the engine.Carburetor- provides fuel and air to the engine in correct proportions and volume.
9 Components of Operating Systems Fuel System-Delivers clean and adequate amounts of fuel to the cylinder.Fuel tankFuel filter- acts as a cleaner for the fuel that passes through it.Fuel pump- ensures that an adequate amount of fuel under the correct pressure is distributed throughout the rest of the system.Fuel injection systems- inject fuel into the combustion chamberMechanical fuel injection systems- use mechanical type pumpsElectronic fuel injection systems- use electrically operated injectors
10 Components of Operating Systems Exhaust system-Removes the exhaust gases and particles from the combustion chamber.Manages engine noise and heat transfer.Exhaust manifoldExhaust pipeMuffler
11 Components of Operating Systems Engine cooling system-Manages the heat produced by the combustion of the air-fuel mixture.Allows the engine to reach its optimum operating temperature and to maintain that temperature under varying conditions.2 basic types:Liquid cooling systemAir-cooled system
12 Engine Cooling Systems Liquid cooling system-Uses a liquid to transfer heat from engine components to the surrounding air.Radiator- heat transfer device that acts as a cooling and storage area for the liquid combination of water and antifreeze.Water pump- mechanical device that forces the coolant to flow through the system.Thermostat- flow control valve that regulates temperature inside an engine by opening and closing.Additional components of a liquid cooling system: radiator cap, water jacket, fan, fan belt, temperature gauge
13 Engine Cooling Systems Air-cooled system-transfers the heat of the engine components directly to the surrounding air.Common on small gas engines.Fins- used to increase the surface area in contact with the air so that engine heat can be transferred more efficiently.Shroud- engine cover that directs cooling air across the engine fins.Fan- force air through the engine cooling system.
14 Components of Operating Systems Ignition system-Starts the combustion of air-fuel mixture.Compression ignition system-No unique parts; part of the compression systemSpark ignition system-Uses a high voltage electrical spark to ignite the compressed air and fuel mixture in the combustion chamber.2 types:Magneto-type ignition systemsBattery-type ignition systems
15 Spark Ignition Systems Magneto- type ignition systems-use magnets and coils to generate electrical pressure to arc the spark plug.Flywheel magnet creates a magnetic field which cuts across the armature and coil assembly as the flywheel rotates, inducing voltage into the primary circuit.
16 Spark Ignition Systems Battery-type ignition system-Uses the energy from a battery and/or alternator to create the ignition spark.
17 Components of Operating Systems Lubrication system-Keeps internal engine parts coated with oil to:Reduce frictionEnhance coolingSeal internal engine componentsClean internal partsBasic componentsOil filterPressure regulatorOil pansOil pump
18 Components of Operating Systems Starting system-Used to turn the engine crankshaft until the engine starts.Manual starting systems-Common on small gas enginesManually turning the crankshaft.Rope starterElectrical starting systems-Solenoid-type switch controls the correct amount of voltage going to the starter.Flywheel-