2 Charles Finley Father of modern revivalism Most famous preacher of the eraLectured on the depth of the conversation experienceConvert’s duty was to spread the word about personal salvation.Participated in Second Great AwakeningFocus on the possibility for salvation for all on an individual basis.
3 Types of Reform Women’s rights, school reform, and abolition Emerged as responses to rapid changes in American SocietyIndustrial growth, migration, and immigrationImpulses toward reform were rooted in the revivals of the religious movement Second Great Awakening.
4 Second Great Awakening revivals – an emotional meeting designed to awaken religious faith with impassioned preaching and prayerLast 4 – 5 daysIn the day, studied the bible and examined their souls.At night, heard emotional preaching that could make them cry out & bust into tears.
5 Second Great Awakening Brought Christianity on a large scale to enslaved African AmericansBelief that all people whether black or white belonged to the same GodSlaves in the rural south participated in segregated worship in the same churches as the slave owners.Africans interpreted God’s word as a promise of freedom.In the east free Africans worshiped in separate churches like Richard Allen’s Bethel African Church.The church became a political, cultural, and social center for African Americans.
6 TranscendentalismMany reform-minded individuals sought alternatives to religious reform.Ralph Waldo Emerson led a group practicing transcendentalism.A philosophical and literary movement that emphasized living a simple life & celebrating the truth found in nature, emotion, & imagination.Read pg 243
7 UnitariansEmphasized reason and appeals to conscience as the paths to perfectionWealthy and educated followingBelieved conversion was a gradual process.Purpose of Christianity was “the perfection of human nature”utopian communities – or perfect place.
8 Shakers Shakers shared their goods with each other Believed men & women are equal, and refused to fight for any reason.Shakers vowed not to marry or have children.Depended on converts and adopting children to keep up their communities.In 1999, only about 7 Shakers remained in the U.S.
9 Other Reforms Alexis de Tocqueville Dorothea Dix Horace Mann Reformed prisons (mentally ill)Horace MannReformed the education systemDeveloped curriculumDeveloped teacher training programs
10 Answer the following questions What was the Second Great Awakening?How did the Second Great Awakening affect African Americans?What did transcendentalism teach?What did Unitarians believe?What were the goals of the nation’s utopian communities?What views did the Shakers hold?How did reformers attempt to improve the nation’s prisons?In what ways did reformers seek to improve the country’s education system?What role did Horace Mann play in education reform?