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Political aspects of Classical China ZHOU (1029 BCE – 258 BCE) established the Mandate of Heaven, Dynastic Cycle and Sons of Heaven concepts that were.

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Presentation on theme: "Political aspects of Classical China ZHOU (1029 BCE – 258 BCE) established the Mandate of Heaven, Dynastic Cycle and Sons of Heaven concepts that were."— Presentation transcript:

1 Political aspects of Classical China ZHOU (1029 BCE – 258 BCE) established the Mandate of Heaven, Dynastic Cycle and Sons of Heaven concepts that were part of Chinese history for over 2,000 years decentralized; feudal gov’t (Ruler gave land to nobles in exchange for protection) Confucius was political philosopher who lived during the politically uncertain times during the 500sBCE; came out with a system of ethics territory expanded beyond the Yellow/Haung He to incorporate lands south to the Yangtze River QIN (221BCE - 206 BCE) Shi Huangdi – 1st Emperor who united China; took power away from nobles Feudalism ends and China becomes centralized under one absolute monarch Bureaucracy is set up harsh laws are made to keep the people in line- he was a Legalist expanded territory Great Wall is built as a protective barrier in the North (very large public works project) Shi Huangdi was considered brutal but effective given what use to be the internal disorder of the Zhou He standardized: weights, measures, coinage, written script, lengths of axels on carts He furthered agriculture, promoted silk cloth manufacturing, burned many books

2 The Golden Age of Classical China HAN (206BCE – 220CE) reduced brutality (harshness) of the Qin by getting rid of the many harsh laws expanded territory especially to the west into Central Asia Emperor Wudi (141-87BCE)created the civil service exam using Confucian ideas Well organized and educated bureaucracy; people had to earn their jobs in gov’t by passing the civil service test very active in economy (standardization, public works, granaries) Golden Age occurred

3 Classical India Classical India didn’t develop solid political traditions especially compared to the other 3 classical civs Regionalism was the largest continuity of the classical period; at times autocratic kings, and aristocratic assemblies dotted the landscape of India Due to this, the political culture of India was not very elaborate (highly centralized) The Vedic and Epic ages (1600-600BCE) were a formative period laying down concepts of culture and society as opposed to a solid political base The Maurya and Gupta would come the closest to strong centralized rule, but not without several devices to ensure political power

4 Classical India’s Politics Maurya (321-185 BCE) 1 st Ruler was Chandragupta He united the areas of the Indus and Ganges under his control by using his strong military; he was also an autocratic ruler 3 rd ruler was Asoka (Chandragupta’s grandson) He continued to use the military to expand the borders of the empire Empire extended downward to the southern tip except Tamil Kingdom Bureaucracy was established to administer the empire Gupta (CE 320-550) no single ruler that had as much impact as Mauryan rulers but was a dynasty In order to ensure power, claimed to be appointed by the gods to rule made alliances rather than fight to maintain peace and keep the territory under control dynasty much smaller than Maurya; hard to re-establish loyalty to one ruler instead of local princes and that was difficult to do Technically a regional kingdom universal law codes were created to help unite territory, public works, sponsored university life GOLDEN AGE occurred

5 Classical Greece 800BCE – 430BCE Each city-state had its own gov’t – why? Many forms of gov’t were used (aristocracy, tyranny, monarchy, oligarchy, direct democracy) Although there were several city-states, two were very well known and in many ways different Athens – direct democracy using aristocratic assemblies (citizenship was limited to males of a certain age) Athens reached a GOLDEN AGE under Pericles who is known as the “father of democracy” Sparta – militaristic society with a king

6 Alexander’s Empire 336 – 303 BCE; beginning in Macedonia (North of Greece) extending to Greece, Persia, India and Egypt took over after his father (Philip of Macedonia) conquered the warring Greek city-states and extended south and south east all the way to Northern India (Chandragupta was inspired by Alexander the Great) had 13 years of conquering and died at 33 yrs old never lost a battle; named many cities throughout the empire after himself; he encouraged his soldiers to marry Persian women to blend cultures together; adopted Persian dress After his death, a new culture emerged – Hellenistic

7 Classical Rome Roman Republic (509BCE – 27 BCE) Indirect democracy /representative democracy Senate – 300 members and Consul (2 leaders of senate) dominated by Patricians (aristocrats/landowners) Plebeians gained rights through Law of the 12 tables and tribunes Julius Caesar ruled as a dictator prior to his death WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ATHENS DEMOCRACY AND THE ROMAN REPUBLIC? Roman Empire(27 BCE-CE 476) Began with Caesar Augustus 200 year golden age (Pax Romana) begins with Augustus and lasts though to Marcus Aurelius 27BC-AD 180) legion (army) used to expand empire extended citizenship to non- Romans laws helped unite the people even through there was many cultures found throughout the empire Built an extensive road system to the link the empire Decline begins in 180 and takes until 476 for the official collapse

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