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West African Trading Kingdoms
West African Trading Kingdoms
most important goods traded?
Ghana As trade began to increase with the use of camels across the northern part of the Sahara Desert, Ghana rulers began to tax goods carried through their lands. What were the two most important goods traded? Gold and Salt
As Ghana became a powerful empire, it converted to Islam.
salt Ghana As Ghana became a powerful empire, it converted to Islam. As Ghana fell to the Almorvids of N. Africa, they never really regained its former power
Mali Sundiata became Mali’s first Emperor.
Sundiata was a great military and political leader. Mali rulers adopted the Muslim religion.
Mansa Musa Made Mali twice the size of the old empire Ghana.
Appointed governors to help him rule Devoted Muslim (built two mosques) One was built in Timbuktu were it became the leading center of Muslim learning Ibn Battuta later traveled through Mali and described it as peaceful
Mansa Musa’ Hajj to Mecca
Mansa Musa went through Egypt. He gave away so much gold, he ruined the economy of Egypt for ten years!
Effects Outside Africa
Pilgrimage to Mecca Musa and entourage impressed people with their lavish clothing, generous gifts Trip to Mecca led to great changes in Mali Returning to kingdom, Musa brought artists, architects who designed beautiful mosques; also built schools, libraries where people could study Qu’ran, other Islamic writings Musa’s hajj brought Mali to attention of Europe Mali began to appear on European maps for first time Within a century, Europeans began to search West Africa for source of Mali’s riches Effects Outside Africa Rulers following Musa not as strong Several peoples broke away, set up independent kingdoms Mali also invaded from outside Among invaders, Tuareg 1433, captured Timbuktu, a blow from which Mali never recovered Decline of Mali
Songhai Songhai Rise of Songhai Military Leadership
Songhai existed as small kingdom for centuries, paid tribute to Ghana, Mali Grew wealthy trading goods along Niger River Came in contact with Muslim traders; Islam became influence on culture Rise of Songhai 1460s, rulers had become strong, rich enough to take control of former empire of Mali Songhai’s rise under leadership of military leader, sunni, named Sunni Ali Military Leadership Ali’s first act as leader: took Timbuktu from the Tuareg Led number of campaigns against neighboring peoples to build empire Military success came from army of skilled cavalry, navy of war canoes Conquered new territories, replaced local leaders with Ali’s own followers
Songhai Asia Muhammad
Songhai Askia Muhammad Pilgrimage
Songhai’s culture reached height under Askia Muhammad Reign considered to be golden age During 35 years he ruled, Askia Muhammad expanded Songhai, strengthened its government Pilgrimage Askia Muhammad, Songhai’s first Muslim ruler Islam had been introduced earlier; Sunni Ali never became Muslim To show commitment, Askia Muhammad decided to make pilgrimage to Mecca Traveled through Egypt, gained support of Muslim rulers
Results of Pilgrimage Songhai Trade Resumed Control, Decline
During pilgrimage, Askia Muhammad made contact with traders from North Africa Trans-Saharan trade that had slowed after fall of Mali resumed once again Increased commerce made Songhai very wealthy kingdom Askia Muhammad used wealth to once again make Timbuktu center of culture, Islamic scholarship Trade Resumed To secure control of trade, Askia Muhammad extended Songhai’s borders north into desert, home of the Tuareg Did not want raiders to interfere with traveling merchants Reformed government, built offices in capital city of Gao to oversee trade, agriculture, military Eventually overthrown by son By 1591 empire conquered by Morocco Control, Decline
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