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Relocation and Dislocation

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Presentation on theme: "Relocation and Dislocation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Relocation and Dislocation

2 Internal Migration Migration that occurs within a country’s borders.
Examples/Reasons for internal vs. international: same language, familiar cultural aspects, shorter distances traveled

3 INTERNAL MIGRATIONS Two Types: Intraregional Interregional

4 Intraregional Migration
Intraregional migrations--people moving or being moved within one geographic realm (region) of a country Current examples: Rural to urban: increases with development, ¾ of core countries population in urban areas Urban to suburban: lifestyle changes (babies) Metropolitan to nonmetropolitan areas: called counter-urbanization, increased technology allows people to work outside of the city

5 Interregional Migrations
Interregional Migration-people moving or being moved from one geographic realm (region) to another within a country From South Current USA examples: Movement North to South, and East to West Net migration (immigrants-emigrants) Figures as of 2007 South-(+1,419,000) Northeast-(-915,000) Midwest-(-533,000) West-(+29,000) refugees/evacuees from the Gulf Coast region to other parts of the United States Rural to urban areas to find work

6 Interregional Migrations
Current World examples: To Brazil’s interior: Brasilia to North in Italy, and North to South in the UK for Jobs Islands of development are cities with foreign investment and jobs West African coast European colonies in SE Asia attracted Chinese

7 External Migration Movement across country borders
Also called International migration Emigrant: one who migrates out of a country Subtracts from total population Immigrant: one who migrates into a country Adds to total population

8 Major Global Migration Flows
From 1500 to 1950

9 Global Migration Patterns
From less-developed Stage 2 countries into more-developed Stage 4 countries 3 largest migration flows Asia to Europe Asia to North America Latin America to North America Net In Migration: North America, Europe, Oceania (more people moving in) Net Out Migration: Asia, Latin America, Africa (more people moving out)

10 US Immigration Patterns
Three main waves 1. Colonial America: European settlement- 2 million, mostly British African slaves – 800, 000

11 Immigration to the United States, 1820 to 2001

12 US Immigration Patterns
2. 19th century ( ) 3 European Peaks 1840s and 1850s: -Northern and Western Europe (Ireland, Germany) 1880s: -Northern and Western Europe (Ireland, Germany, Norway, Sweden) : -Southern and Eastern Europe [Italy, Russia, Austria-Hungary (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine) ]

13 Immigration to the United States, 1820 to 2001

14 US Immigration Patterns
3. Second-half of 20th century ( ) Less developed regions Latin America: Mexico, Dominican Republic, El Salvador Asia: China, Philippines, India, Vietnam

15 Immigration to the United States, 1820 to 2001

16 Immigration Policies USA Quota Laws
Quota Act of 1921 and Origins Act of 1924: 2% of 1910 population Immigration Act of 1965 1968: Hemisphere quotas 1978: Global Quotas Currently: Global Quota of 620, 000 with no more than 7% from each country Major Exceptions: family reunification, employment, talented, refugees

17 Immigration Policies Brain Drain: large-scale emigration by talented people out of the periphery Guest Workers: To Europe from Middle East and North Africa Example: 750,000 Turks employed in Germany Time-Contract workers: South and East Asian workers to Southeast Asia

18 What about refugees? UN definition
A person who has well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political group. UN reports 24 million refugees worldwide Is this accurate?

19 What about refugees? UN definitions
International refugees: Those who have crossed one or more international borders and are encamped in a country other than their own Intranational refugees: Those who have abandoned their homes but not their homeland

20 It is difficult to identify refugees.
No mention of natural/enviromental disaster UN must distinguish between refugees and voluntary migrants before granting asylum. Three general characteristics, individual or aggregate (collectively): Most refugees move without any more tangible property than they can carry or transport with them. Most refugees make their first “step” on foot, by bicycle, wagon, or open boat. Refugees move without the official documents that accompany channeled migrations.

21 Regions of Dislocation
Sub-Saharan Africa Several of the world’s largest refugee crises plagued Africa during the 1990s and early 21st century -8 million “official” refugees Civil wars in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Angola, and Sudan Hostilities between the Hutu and Tutsi tribes in Rwanda

22 Other regions of dislocation…
North Africa and Southwest Asia Israel and the displaced Arab populations that surround it Exhibits qualities that are likely to generate additional refugee flow in the future The Kurdish population following the Gulf War (1991) Taliban rule in Afghanistan Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion during the 1980s

23 Regions of dislocation continued…
South Asia Pakistan accommodated forced emigrants from Afghanistan Major refugee problem stems from a civil war in Sri Lanka

24 Regions of dislocation continued…
Southeast Asia 1979-“Boat people” who fled communist rule in Vietnam (2 million). Settled in developed countries-US, Canada, UK, France In the early 1990s, Cambodia generated the region’s largest refugee flow Today--largest number of refugees come from Myanmar (Burma). Ethnic Rohingya fleeing refugee camps and persecution.

25 Regions of dislocation continued…
Europe After the collapse of Yugoslavia, over 1 million were displaced South America Colombian illegal drug violence, especially in rural areas

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