Voluntary Muscle is a muscle a person can Control.
Involuntary Muscle is a muscle that functions without a person’s Control.
Tendon is a tough tissue that attaches Muscles to bones.
Metabolism is the rate at which food is converted into energy in body cells.
Digestion is the process by which food is changed so that is can be Absorbed by the body’s cells.
Nervous System Carries messages to and from the brain and spinal cord and all other parts of the body Main Parts: – Central Nervous System: Brain Spinal Cord – Peripheral Nervous System: Consists of all nerves that branch out from central nervous system to muscles, skin, internal organs, and glands
Central Nervous System Brain: – Control center of the body – Weighs about 3 lbs – Can store more information than all libraries in the world – Creates ideas, controls thinking, reasoning, movement, and emotions
Cerebellum: controls and coordinates muscle activity. Helps maintain balance Brain Stem: Controls functions of internal organs Cerebrum: controls ability to think, memorize, and learn. Determines personality and intelligence
Spinal Cord: – Thick column of nerve cells that extends from the brain through spinal column. – Carries messages to and from your brain and body Central Nervous System
Cardiovascular System Transports nutrients, gases, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout body. Main Parts: – Blood – Blood Vessels – Heart
Blood Carries nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and cellular waste products to and from cells Plasma: – Liquid component (95% water) Red Blood Cell: – Transports oxygen to body cells and removes carbon dioxide Hemoglobin: – Iron-rich protein that helps transport oxygen and carbon dioxide White Blood Cell: – Attacks, surrounds, and destroys pathogens Pathogen: – Germ that causes disease Platelet: – Particle that helps blood clot
Blood Vessels Artery: – Carries blood away from heart Vein: – Returns blood to heart Capillary: – Tiny vessel that connects arteries and veins – Have thin walls that allow for transfer of nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and cellular waste to and from blood and body cells
Atrium: upper two chambers Ventricle: lower two chambers
Immune System Removes harmful organisms from the blood and combats pathogens Main parts: – Lymph: Clear liquid that surrounds body cells Carries harmful pathogens to nodes – Lymph Node: Structure that filters and destroys pathogens – Spleen: Organ on left side of abdomen that filters foreign matter from blood and lymph – Lymph vessels – Tonsils – thymus
Respiratory System Provides body cells with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide that cells produce as waste Main Parts: – Pharynx: throat – Trachea: tube air moves to lungs – Cilia: hair-like structures that remove dust from air – Bronchi: 2 tubes through which air moves to lungs – Lungs: main organs – Bronchioles: smaller tubes divided into alveoli – Alveoli: Tiny air sacs
Skeletal System Serves as a support framework, protects vital organs, works with muscles to produce movement, and produces blood cells 206 bones in adults Cartilage: – soft, connective tissue on end of some bones – Acts as cushion where bones meet Ligament: – Tough fibers that connect bones together Joint: – point where 2 bones meet
Muscular System Consists of muscles that provide motion and maintain posture More than 600 in body Types: – Voluntary (can control) – Involuntary (without thought) Muscle Tissue Types: – Smooth (internal organs) – Skeletal (attached to bone) – Cardiac (in heart) Tendon: Attaches muscles to bone
Digestive System Breaks down food into nutrients that can be used by the body Main Parts: – Mouth (break food into small pieces) – Esophagus (connects mouth to stomach) – Stomach (releases acid and juices that mix with food and make chyme) – Small Intestine (greatest amount of digestion and absorption) – Liver (releases bile to break down fats, maintain blood sugar level, and filter waste – Pancreas (produces digestive enzymes and insulin) – Large Intestine (undigested food prepared for elimination)
Urinary System Removes liquid waste from the body and maintains body’s water balance Main organs: – Kidneys (filters blood and excretes waste and excess water in urine) – Ureters (connects kidneys to bladder) – Bladder (muscular sac that stores urine) – Urethra (connects bladder to outside of body)