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D&T: Electronics and Control Systems

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Presentation on theme: "D&T: Electronics and Control Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 D&T: Electronics and Control Systems
Unit A511: Introduction to designing and making Name: Candidate number: Centre Number: 16527

2 Creativity (slide 2) Theme Choice
Choose and state the theme for the project. Explain why you have chosen it. Use a mind map (spider diagram) explore possibilities. Show a range of possible problems and situations related to the theme. For example: Choose one to develop for your project – show your choice on the chart This could be hand drawn and scanned into your presentation

3 Investigation of Users’ Needs
Brainstorm and investigate your users, your place and other products like your intended product. Designing (slide 3) Investigation of Users’ Needs WHAT WHEN WHERE USERS NEEDS WHO WHY

4 Creativity (slide 4) Users Needs
What does the user need to solve the problem you have identified? Evidence that there is a need (WHAT): Annotated pictures Newspaper clippings describing what happened (most articles will state what happened, who it happened to and probably where. Evidence of users (WHO): Brief survey People in newspaper clippings Evidence of the situation (WHERE) Pictures showing where there might be a problem and where the solution you propose might be used.

5 Carry out a brief questionnaire
Creativity (slide 5) Carry out a brief questionnaire Produce 10 questions that will help discover information that will show that people exist who have the problem you are exploring. Get 10 people to answer your questions. Ask questions to identify WHAT the problem might be. Ask questions to identify WHO might have the problem and might want your product. Ask questions to identify WHEN and WHERE the problem might be. Ask questions to identify the nature of the possible solution. (This might help you draw up your specification. Don’t forget to explain why you ask each question – don’t ask pointless questions that you will not learn anything from. Make sure you do a tally of the results and explain what they show

6 Manufacturing process used
Creativity (slide 6) Product Comparison Analysis of products related to the theme. Three pictures of products related to the theme. The analysis should show a trend, such as cost complexity or type of user. (Probably 3 different types of security device.) The table below could be used. (See the next page for some examples) Product Cost Typical user When / Where used? Function Technology used (Input / Output) Manufacturing process used Name and picture of product 1 Name and picture of product 2

7 Examples of products for comparison (all alarms of some sort)
Remember these are examples – you need to get your own Product Description – Personal Attack Alarm (£5.99) - From Amazon Tiny matchbox sized attack alarm with a useful key ring attachment. Simply pull pin out to activate alarm. Emits 130 decibel siren Supplied with alkaline battery 5 year no-quibble guarantee. Size: 4.4 x 3.8 x 1.6cm Weight: 20gms . From Amazon Product Description – Carbon Monoxide Alarm (£16.66) - From Amazon Requires 3 X AA Batteries, LCD Display, Approved Test and hush button Alarm memory function, Audio and visual Alarm, Self test function, Highly accurate carbon monoxide detection, Audibility: 1 metre distance Sound and LED indication Standby: Green LED flashes once every 30 seconds Alarm: Red LED flashes quickly with alarms sounding every 5 seconds and repeat Low battery indicator: Sounds every 30 seconds when batteries are lower than 3.3v with green LED, Malfunction indicator Product Description – Cold Alarm for Old People (£27.50) - From Amazon Keep warm and stay safe with this affordable and effective alert to the dangers of falling temperatures. Particularly useful for the elderly and less mobile, who are often especially vulnerable and cannot always detect or respond to getting cold, this Cold Alarm provides early warning of colder conditions in the home, so you can take simple steps to prevent ill health. The Cold Alarm delivers early warning of falling temperatures in the form of an easy-to-understand traffic light style LED display, which is backed up by an audible alarm at the lowest temperatures. Green light flashing every 10 seconds shows that the temperature is above 18°C : considered normal safe environment; Amber light flashing indicates that the temperature is between 12°C and 18°C :take action to increase warmth; Red light flashing warns of a dangerously low temperature of between 7°C and 12°C : there could be a risk of hypothermia, need to take action; Red light flashing and beeping alarm alerts to immediate danger of a temperature below 7°C : dangerously cold.

8 Creativity (slide 7) The Design Brief
Summarise what you have found out so far in terms of there being a definite situation, a recognised problem and people who have a need for what you could design to help them. Write a clear Design Brief that describes clearly what you are going to design and make. Write down what you need to do next or find out next e.g. Decide in detail what your circuit is going to need to do to solve the problem. What circuits and components might be available for you to use. What software you have available to you, to help you solve the problem and design a solution.

9 Creativity (slide 8) Product Analysis
Analyse in detail 2 products related to your project (probably 2 different types of burglar alarms, one fairly simple and one a little more complex.) Use the table on the next slide to help you organise the information. A simple system for the hotel room on holiday. A more complex system for the home.

10 Name and picture of product 1 Name and picture of product 2
Creativity (slide 9) Use 10 or 12 point text in this table Name and picture of product 1 Name and picture of product 2 Function User need fulfilled Materials used in construction Durability of product Sustainability (6Rs) Life cycle Energy use

11 Design (slide 10) The Specification
Summarise the information to produce a list of points that describe what your “product” will need to be like to solve the problem. Remember that you are only describing what the circuit will need to do to solve the problem. This list of points is the “specification” Function: What it needs to sense – inputs What it needs to do when whatever is sensed – output Include any timings if appropriate – delays etc. Include indicators etc. Power supply. Safety features. Manufacture / construction.

12 Design (slide 11) System Diagram
Show a systems chart to show possible inputs, outputs and processes. Show pictures of the components required for each input or output mentioned. Do not include combining inputs and delays if not appropriate to what you are designing – although you could use the columns to show that the response is immediate. (i.e. 0 seconds.) Delay before INPUT INPUT Combine inputs? Delay after INPUT PROCESS Delay before OUTPUT OUTPUT Time delay between power on and input sensed? List of possible things that could be sensed + images of possible components. More than one input that needs combining? – e.g. AND or OR? Time delay after input sensed? List of possible ways that the output can be controlled. Time delay before the output is turned on. List of possible outputs ( include power indicators etc.) + images of possible components Delete these instructions from your table.

13 Design (slides 12 and 13) Slide 10 – Ideas for the circuit
Include 3/4 circuits that could solve the problem: Picture of each circuit – from internet, hand drawn and scanned in or from circuit wizard. Brief description of the circuit saying what does in terms of what it senses and how it controls its outputs. How well it could it solve the problem? Slide 11 – Development of the chosen circuit Choose one circuit and give your reasons for choosing it. Build it in circuit wizard Show screen shots of the circuit being developed – component values being changed to fine tune the way it works (especially in terms of timing delays etc.) Show annotated screen shots of the circuit being tested to show that it will work and that it will solve the problem. It is important that at least three annotated stages are shown of the circuit being developed, that the screen shots show it working so that it is clear that it solves the problem.

14 Design (slide 14) Development of the PCB
Show the stages of the development of the finished circuit into the final PCB You must show at least 3 stages of development. Each stage must be annotated to describe the changes and the reasons for them. The final PCB must be shown including the off board components and the connecting wires – it would be a good idea to label this final stage. The list of components must be included – images of the components to be used could get extra marks. (from earlier in the project?)

15 Description of Process Tools/Materials required
Making (slide 15) Planning for manufacture Use the table below to describe how you plan to make your circuit. Use the information and pictures of equipment on my website to help you. Description of Process Tools/Materials required Tips for success Design PCB and create mask Cut board to size Expose Mask and photoPCB to UV Develop exposed PCB Etch PCB Drill holes in solder pads Add resistors Add capacitors Add transistors/thyristors Add Chip socket Add off board components Add chip to socket Delete any of the processes that don’t apply You need to add detail to this column for each process

16 Making (slide 16 to 18 - approx)
Manufacture of the circuit Include photographs to show the stages of the making of your circuit Annotate each picture to show what is happening. Highlight any problems that were encountered and what you did to solve the problem or anything that you changed as the circuit was constructed (i.e. what is different to what you planned. This is an important part of the mark scheme. In addition: You must include a clear photo of the whole circuit including the off board components and the connecting wires. You must include a clear photo of the top side of the PCB showing the components. You must include a clear photo of the underside of the PCB showing the soldered joints. To ensure the marks for problem solving are gained it might be best if the changes mad and the problems encountered are summarised at the end of this section.

17 Evaluation (slide 19) Testing your circuit
Show a step by step plan that can be used to test your finished circuit. Write it as if it were for a person who does not know how it is supposed to work. Tick of each step to show that the circuit works. Evaluation Describe what went well and what did not go so well in the manufacture of your circuit Consider the development of the circuit and the development of the PCB Consider the actual building of the circuit Could it have been made differently? – alternatives? Could it have been made better? – how? Compare what you did to the steps of your plan See table on next slide as a suggestion.

18 Evaluation (slide 20) Evaluation (continued) Description of Process
What went well Problems encountered/changes made Action taken to deal with problem Design PCB and create mask Cut board to size Expose Mask and photoPCB to UV Develop exposed PCB Etch PCB Drill holes in solder pads Add resistors Add capacitors Add transistors/thyristors Add Chip socket Add off board components Add chip to socket Copy the planning table and edit as required. Comments only need to be brief.

19 Evaluation (slide 21) Improvements
In addition to describing how the circuit could have been manufactured better; Describe how the circuit could be improved to function better to solve the problem more effectively. Different inputs More inputs Different control of the outputs Different outputs

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