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Speech and Language Disorders

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1 Speech and Language Disorders
Chapter 9 “This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission over a network: preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.”

2 IDEA Definition of Speech or Language Impairment
…a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

3 Communication Speech= audible representation of language. Language= message that is contained in speech.

4 Communication Exchange of ideas, information, thoughts, and feelings between senders and receivers The process does not require speech or language Gestures Posture Eye contact Facial expression Head and body movement

5 Language Expressive Language Receptive Language
The system of symbols that individuals use for communication, based on their culture Expressive Language Receptive Language

6 5 Components of Language
Phonology Semantics Pragmatics Morphology Content Function Syntax Form

7 Structure of language Phonology = rules regarding how sounds can be used and combined. Syntax = the way sequences of words are combined into phrases and sentences. Morphology = the form and internal structure of words. Semantics = the understanding of language. Pragmatics = rules that govern the reasons for communication as well as the choice of codes to be used when communicating.

8 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”
Definition Language process involves: Memory. Learning. Message reception and processing. Expressive skills. Language delays= sequence of development is intact but the rate is interrupted. Language disorders= sequence of language acquisition is not systematic or sequential. “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”

9 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”
Language development Stages in developing language. Crying, then cooing, and babbling. Different tones and vocal intensity. Echoing or mimicking responses. Words begin to become attached to people or objects. Strings of two and three words. Basic syntactical structures by age 4. Six word sentences by age 5. Articulate nearly all the speech sounds correctly by age 8. There are variations to the age ranges for each stage!! “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”

10 Language Disorders Specific language impairment Language delay Aphasia
Central Auditory Processing Disorder

11 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”
Classification According to cause. Receptive language = difficulties in comprehending what others say. Expressive language = difficulty in formulating and using language. Aphasia = impairment of language comprehension, formulation, and use due to injury, disease, or mal-development of the brain. “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”

12 Receptive Language Problems
Encounters difficulty with understanding oral presentation of information Does not understand humor, figurative language, or abstract thought

13 Expressive Language Problems
Limited use of vocabulary Searches for the right word Poor social language skills Hesitates to ask questions Jumps from topic to topic Topics chosen are concrete rather than abstract, temporal, or spatial Repetitive and unspecific

14 Speech disorders can occur in all of these areas
Dimensions of Speech Voice Pitch, intensity, quality Resonance Articulation Fluency Speech disorders can occur in all of these areas

15 Speech disorders Speech behavior that is sufficiently deviant from normal that it attracts attention. Fluency Disorders Repeated interruptions, hesitations, or repetitions that seriously interrupt the flow of communication. Cluttering = speech that is overly rapid, disorganized, and occasionally filled with unnecessary words. Stuttering = flow of speech is abnormally interrupted by repetitions, blocking, or prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases. Childhood apraxia of speech

16 Speech disorders Articulation Disorders
Abnormality in the speech-sound production process resulting in inaccurate or otherwise inappropriate execution of the speaking act. Omissions. Substitutions. Additions. Distortions of certain sounds. Causation Physical malformation, nerve injury, or brain damage. Cleft palate. Occlusion/malocclusion. Defective learning of the speaking act. “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”

17 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”
Causation “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”

18 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”
Cleft lip and palate “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”

19 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”
Speech disorders Voice Disorders Unusual or abnormal acoustical qualities in a person’s speech. Subjectivity in determining voice normalcy. Problems are persistent when not treated. Nasality, hoarseness, or breathiness. “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006”

20 Prevalence of Speech Language Disorders
19% of all students receiving special education 2:1 ratio, boys to girls Does not include students who receive speech and language therapy as a related service


22 Causes of Speech and Language Disorders
Biological causes Physical causes Emotional causes Brain injury Heredity Environmental causes Neglect or abuse Poverty, malnutrition

23 Cognitive and Academic Characteristics
Problems occur across the entire range of cognitive abilities Problems may profoundly affect a student’s learning High risk of reading difficulties for students with speech and language delays

24 Social/Emotional Characteristics
Students may have low self-esteem Students may experience social isolation Students may develop behavior problems

25 Speech Assessments Formal tests of articulation
Spontaneous language samples Developmental history Examination of mouth, teeth, palate

26 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Language Assessments Formal and informal assessments Samples of student’s written schoolwork Observations What child talks about How child talks about things How child functions in context of community How child uses language socially Precautions necessary when assessing students whose first language is not English Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

27 Figure 10.4 Educational Placement of Students with Speech and Language Disorders


29 Communication and Technology
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) Unaided – sign language Aided – depends on equipment or materials Communication board Computer with speech processor Word prediction software Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

30 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

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