Presentation on theme: "Plant Stem Page 10, #65 Slide Set 78, #2"— Presentation transcript:
1 Plant Stem Page 10, #65 Slide Set 78, #2 Zea Mays corn stem (cross section) Magnification: xThe XYLEM (X) consists of vascular tissues that conduct water and minerals from the roots toward the leaves. Due to capillary action water travels only one way, against the force of gravity.The PHLOEM (P) consists of vascular tissues that conduct food (glucose) from the leaves, where it is made, to the parts of the plant that use it. Fluids can travel in both directions.Together, the XYLEM and PHLOEM make up the VASCULAR BUNDLE
2 Plant Root Page 11, #73 Slide Set 77, #2 Buttercup Root Central Cylinder (cross section)Magnification: 220xThe root’s central cylinder contains the conducting tissues of the root.The XYLEM (X) consists of vascular tissues that conduct water and minerals from the roots toward the leaves. Due to capillary action water travels only one way, against the force of gravity.The PHLOEM (P) consists of vascular tissues that conduct food (glucose) from the leaves, where it is made, to the parts of the plant that use it. Fluids can travel in both directions.A small portion of the CORTEX (C) is also visible.
3 Cross Section of Woody Stem Page 12, #8 Wood CircleCross Section of Woody StemBARK is the outer covering on the trunk, twigs, and woody roots of trees. The outer bark we are familiar with is a layer of dead CORK CAMBIUM cells protecting the rest of the stem. Just inside the bark, but outside the wood, is a single layer of cells called the CAMBIUM. This layer repeatedly divides, first in then out, to form all of the new wood and bark.PITH is located in the center of the stems of vascular dicot plants. It is composed of soft, spongy parenchyma cells, which store and transport nutrients throughout the plant.An AGING tree grows in diameter by adding a layer of new wood in the cambium layer every year. As rings are added, the tree trunk and branches grow in diameter. Each layer of new wood that is added to a tree forms a recognizable ring.
4 Leaf Cross-Section Page 13, #5-#7 Slide Set 79, #2 Working Layers of Angiosperm Leaf (cross section) Magnification: 240xLeaves contain “working” layers (P and Y) squeezed in between two protective layers of epidermis (E).Epidermal layers are colorless, but the PALISADES LAYER (P) and the SPONGY LAYER (Y) contain chloroplasts, giving them their characteristic green color.Chloroplasts contain the pigment CHLOROPHYLL which enables them to capture radiant energy from the sun in order to photosynthesize.
5 Chloroplast Page 13, #8-#11 Slide Set 79, #4 Chloroplast (Electron micrograph) Magnification: 30,000xA chloroplast consists of non-green areas (N) and green units called GRANA (R) bounded by a double membrane (M). GRANA are multiple stacks of THYLAKOIDS where the first stage of photosynthesis occurs.A chloroplast’s main function is to capture the radiant energy of the sun for photosynthesis.
6 Plant Epidermis Page 14, #15-#16 Slide Set 79, #5 Epidermis of Flowering Plant (surface view) Magnification: 150xWater vapor, oxygen, and carbon dioxide cannot pass directly through the epidermis of a leaf because it is coated with a waxy, waterproof material called CUTIN.The epidermis of a leaf contains thousands of tiny pores called STOMATES (S). <plural: STOMATA>
7 Stomata Page 14, #17-#19 Slide set 79, #6 Stomate of Flowering Plant (surface view) Magnification: 430xUnder this magnification, you can see more clearly the two sausage-shaped GUARD CELLS which regulate the size of the stomate’s opening.When stomates are wide open, water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide can move freely in and out of the leaf. Closed stomates cut off the exchange of gases and water vapor.
8 Pollen Grains Page 16, #85-#86 Pollen Slide Lily Pollen Grains Magnification: __________POLLEN is found inside the anther (located on top of the stamen) in the flower. Pollen is essentially the male gamete (sperm cells) used in sexual reproduction of angiosperm plants.
9 Fruit Dissection Page 2, Lab-Fruit Dissection Real fruit examples Various berries and aggregate fruitsIdentify and define the following structures:Seed: Fertilized ovuleFuniculus: The ovule is attached to the ovary wall until maturity by a short stalk called the funiculus. The area of attachment to the ovary wall is referred to as the placenta.What is the purpose of Ethylene gas?
10 Flower Dissection Page 23, Flower Anatomy Lab Alstromeria flower specimenSTAMEN: composed of the ANTHER and FILAMENT (male reproductive parts of the flower)CARPEL (sometimes referred to as the PISTIL): composed of the STIGMA, STYLE, and OVARY (female reproductive parts of the flower)