# Great Neck South Middle School Technology Energy and Electricity Introduction.

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Great Neck South Middle School Technology Energy and Electricity Introduction

What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work, or cause change. Energy is literally what makes the world and everything in it go. Energy is the magic stuff stored in the battery that makes the flashlight work. The gasoline in a car’s gas tank contains energy. The car’s engine merely converts the gasoline’s energy into a usable form. Energy is the ability to do work, or cause change. Energy is literally what makes the world and everything in it go. Energy is the magic stuff stored in the battery that makes the flashlight work. The gasoline in a car’s gas tank contains energy. The car’s engine merely converts the gasoline’s energy into a usable form.

While there are many forms and sources of energy, there are only two types: there are only two types: Potential Kinetic

“ energy associated with motion.” “ energy associated with motion.” When discussing kinetic energy, it’s important to keep in mind that the mass and velocity of an object determine its kinetic energy. We can take a look at kinetic energy by throwing a basketball and a baseball. When discussing kinetic energy, it’s important to keep in mind that the mass and velocity of an object determine its kinetic energy. We can take a look at kinetic energy by throwing a basketball and a baseball.

Potential “The energy something has which is stored and not moving.” “the energy that a piece of matter has because of its position or because of the arrangement of parts” because the matter has the potential, or opportunity, to do work. “the energy that a piece of matter has because of its position or because of the arrangement of parts” because the matter has the potential, or opportunity, to do work. There are two types of potential energy: elastic potential energy and gravitational potential energy. There are two types of potential energy: elastic potential energy and gravitational potential energy. Water behind a dam has gravitational potential energy. Water behind a dam has gravitational potential energy. A stretched rubber band has elastic potential A stretched rubber band has elastic potential

Forms of energy Mechanical — the energy of motion Mechanical — the energy of motion Electrical — think lightning or electricity moving through electrical wires Electrical — think lightning or electricity moving through electrical wires Electromagnetic or radiant — energy of magnetism and light Electromagnetic or radiant — energy of magnetism and light Chemical — energy produced by chemical reactions like those that occur in batteries Chemical — energy produced by chemical reactions like those that occur in batteries Nuclear — potential energy stored in the nuclei of atoms Nuclear — potential energy stored in the nuclei of atoms Sound — the energy of vibrating sound waves Sound — the energy of vibrating sound waves Heat – from burning fuel or the earth Heat – from burning fuel or the earth

Energy Conversion Many of the devices we use every day convert energy from one form to another. Many of the devices we use every day convert energy from one form to another. These devices are called transducers. These devices are called transducers.

Transducers Flashlight — converts chemical energy (stored in the battery) to electrical energy to light the bulb. The bulb converts the electrical energy to electromagnetic or radiant energy. Flashlight — converts chemical energy (stored in the battery) to electrical energy to light the bulb. The bulb converts the electrical energy to electromagnetic or radiant energy.

Transducers Toaster — converts electrical energy into thermal energy. Toaster — converts electrical energy into thermal energy. Car engine — converts the chemical energy stored in the gasoline into mechanical and thermal energy. Car engine — converts the chemical energy stored in the gasoline into mechanical and thermal energy.

What do transducers do? Convert one energy type to another. Convert one energy type to another.

How do we produce electricity? GeneratorsGenerators - - - - > Mechanical Batteries - - - - - > Chemicals Photovoltaic Cells - > Light Piezio electric - - > Pressure

Generator – A mechanical device that produces electricity by a process of rotating a magnet inside a coil of copper wire. A generator is a transducer that uses rotary mechanical motion to produces electricity. Generator – A mechanical device that produces electricity by a process of rotating a magnet inside a coil of copper wire. A generator is a transducer that uses rotary mechanical motion to produces electricity.

Industrial & Home Electrical Generators

Battery

Photovoltaic Cells

Piezio Electric

Renewable Energy Vs. Non Renewable

Natural Energy All Renewable Non Consumed when used SolarWindWaterGeothermal

Energy Existing in Nature Natural energy sources are ALL RENEWABLE

Wind Energy

Wind Farm

Middlegruden

Wind Farm

Wind Turbine Generator

LIPA wind farm

Heat Energy Geothermal – heat from the earth Geothermal – heat from the earth Solar Thermal – heat from the sun Solar Thermal – heat from the sun

Solar Energy Light Heat

Solar Energy Light energy --  Electrical energy Uses Photovoltaic Cell

Solar Energy

Water must be Moving Hydroelectric Power- dams & rivers Tidal – vertical movement of tides Wave – using the up/down motion of waves Thermal-using the temperature difference of oceans Water Energy

Hydroelectric

Tidal

Wave

Oregon State Wave Park A 2.25-megawatt project off the coast of Portugal went on line this fall (2008), becoming the world's first commercial wave-energy development in operation. It can supply 1,500 households with electricity.

Ocean Thermal

Fuels

Energy from Fuels Must Be Burned to Create Steam Must Be Burned to Create Steam  Pollute Some are : Some are :  Renewable  Non Renewable

Renewable Fuels Replaceable in a short period of time Biomass - - - - -> Once alive Biomass - - - - -> Once alive Plants Plants  Trees-Wood  Corn, Sugar Cane –Ethanol Alcohol  Algae Algae Garbage Garbage

Biomass as Fuels

Non Renewable Fuels

Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels  Petroleum- Oil  Gasoline  Heating Oil  Plastics  Coal  Natural Gas

Non Renewable Energy Nuclear Nuclear Nuclear  Fission - split atoms  Fusion – combine atoms

Energy Conservation Shut off lights Shut off lights Fluorescent/Compact lights Fluorescent/Compact lights

Recycle Reduce Reuse

What do biomass and fossil fuels have in common? Burnable Pollute

Name two advantages to fuels and why we use them. Portable Portable Storable Storable

What energy source do you think is the safest, cleanest, easiest to use?

Great New York Blackout

Hopefully Not The End

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