# Chapter 13 Energy and Energy Resources Mr. Polard Sixth Grade Physical Science.

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Chapter 13 Energy and Energy Resources Mr. Polard Sixth Grade Physical Science

Section 1 – What is Energy?

 Energy: the ability to cause change (page 374)   Kinetic Energy: energy an object has due to its motion (page 375)  Potential Energy: energy stored in an object due to its position (page 376)  Thermal Energy: the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles in a material (page 376 & 437)  Chemical Energy: energy stored in chemical bonds (page 377)  Radiant Energy: energy carried by an electromagnetic wave (page 377 & 524)  Electrical Energy: energy carried by electric current (page 378)  Nuclear Energy: energy contained in atomic nuclei (page 37) Section 1 – Vocabulary

A.Energy is the ability to cause change. B.Energy from motion is kinetic energy. 1.Kinetic energy increases as an object moves faster. 2.Kinetic energy increases as the mass of an object increases. C.Energy stored in an object due to its position is potential energy. D.Energy comes in different forms. 1.Energy that increases as temperature increases is thermal energy. 2.Chemical energy – energy stored in chemical bonds 3.Radiant energy – light energy 4.Energy from electricity is electrical energy 5.The nucleus of an atom contains nuclear energy Section 1 - Notes

Section 2 – Energy Transformations

 Law of Conservation of Energy: states that energy can change its form but is never created or destroyed (page 380)  Generator: device that uses a magnetic field to turn kinetic energy into electrical energy (page 384 & 626)  Turbine: set of steam-powered fan blades that spins a generator at a power plant (page 384) Section 2 – Vocabulary

A.Energy is constantly changing from one form to another. B.Law of conservation of energy – energy is never created or destroyed; it merely changes form C.Energy can be transferred from kinetic to potential energy and back to kinetic. D.Machines transform energy from one form to another. A.Chemical energy can be transferred to kinetic, radiant, thermal, or electrical energy. B.Electrical energy can be transformed to kinetic, chemical, electrical, or thermal energy. C.Unlike other forms of energy, thermal energy is not easy to store. E.A turbine’s kinetic energy is converted to electrical energy by a generator at a power plant. Section 2 - Notes

Section 3 – Sources of Energy

 Nonrenewable Resource : energy resource that is used up much faster than it can be replaced (page 388)  Renewable Resource : energy resource that is replenished continually (page 390)  Alternative Resource : new renewable or inexhaustible energy source; includes solar energy, wind and geothermal energy (page 391)  Inexhaustible Resource : energy source that can’t be used up by humans (page 391)  Photovoltaic: device that transforms radiant energy directly into electrical energy (page 392) Section 3 – Vocabulary

A.Energy comes from either the Sun or from radioactive atoms in the Earth. B.Fossil fuels include oil, natural gas, and coal. 1.Fossil fuels contain chemical energy from the Sun’s radiant energy via photosynthesis. 2.Nonrenewable resources such as fossil fuels are used up faster than they can be replaced. C.Nuclear energy comes from the nuclei of uranium atoms. D.Hydroelectricity from the potential energy of water is a renewable resource. E.Alternative resources of energy may be safer for people and the environment 1.Solar energy can be captured in thermal collectors or photovoltaic collectors Section 3 - Notes

2.Geothermal energy – thermal energy contained in hot magma 3.Windmills can generate electricity without polluting the environment. F.Conserving energy will help prevent energy shortages and allow fossil fuels to last longer. Section 3 - Notes