Presentation on theme: "English 11 April 2007. Who was Jim Crow? Minstrel show “Jump Jim Crow” Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice White immigrant First popular “blackface”"— Presentation transcript:
Who was Jim Crow? Minstrel show “Jump Jim Crow” Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice White immigrant First popular “blackface” performer Term used to describe “Separate but equal” Set forth in New Orleans Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896 The Jim Crow Era
Into Harlem Many Black Americans found their way to Harlem, a neighborhood in New York City with a lively African- American population.
Why Harlem? Phillip Payton Entrepreneur Considered the father of “Black Harlem” 1904 – Housing market collapsed in White upper middle class area of Harlem Payton bought vacant apartments and rented them to Black tenants Represented freedom Physically Financially Emotionally Spiritually
A Renaissance: 1920-1932 Renaissance A revival in the world of art and learning The New Negro Movement Movement of Black Americans to northern cities Emergence of radical thought Set the stage for the creation of great literature and art in Harlem Could now express their heritage Could stand up for what they believed
A New Sound From the four corners Talented musicians came from all over the country Their unique voices came together to form popular Black music One of the most important contributions was the jazz sound from New Orleans Jazz is uniquely American And was created by African-Americans!
A Mixed Audience Prohibition: 1920-1932 U.S. outlawed the manufacturing, transporting, and selling of alcoholic beverages Speakeasy An establishment used for selling alcohol during prohibition Whites frequented the speakeasies in Harlem for entertainment and alcohol They were entertained by Black performers Performers gained celebrity in the White community
White Involvement Some Whites helped the New Negro Movement Provided funding Assisted in publicizing the performers Published Black authors Why did they help? Generosity? Paternalism? Guilt?
Shunned Stars The artistic figures in Harlem were known all over New York City But they weren’t accepted all over New York City Black band leaders and instrumentalists couldn’t be on the bandstand downtown Black performers were seldom invited to perform at downtown clubs Audiences wanted performers to fit Black stereotypes at the time Enabled the performers to make a living
Slowed, Not Stopped The Great Depression 1929 Put a damper on artistic development Stalled the movement, but didn’t stop it Still going… Langston Hughes – rave reviews for his poetry Zora Neal Hurston – big success with Their Eyes Were Watching God, 1937 After an early-30s slump, jazz came back and had its greatest popular success
Effects of the Harlem Renaissance Established African-Americans in the artistic community International acclaim Artistic achievements by African-Americans were recognized across the country and around the world Proved wrong Black stereotypes Civil Rights organizations, such as the NAACP, emerged during this time More than just literature, art, and music
Jazz Portrait (A Great Day in Harlem) - 1958 Thelonious Monk Sonny Rollins Count Basie Charles MingusDizzy Gillespie Gene Krupa