Basic Motivational Concepts ** Review classroom vignettes--pg. 145 Basic Motivational Concepts ** Review classroom vignettes--pg. 145 TERMDEFINITIONEXAMPLES Motive Hypothetical constructs explaining why people do what they do Hunger Goal The immediate objectives of a behavior Get food Strategies The methods used to achieve goals and satisfy motives Go to a restaurant
Expectancy X Value Theory Expectancy X Value Theory (A) Degree to which people expect successful task performance X (B) Degree to which they value the rewards of such task performance ______________________________________ Effort Investment = A x B (motivation) **Implications for teaching? Teachers need to both help their students appreciate the value of school activities and make sure they can achieve success in these activities with reasonable effort.
Essential Preconditions for Successful Use of Motivational Strategies Supportive Environment- -- Supportive Environment- -- Steady encouragement Steady encouragement Well-organized and managed classroom Well-organized and managed classroom Relaxed, patient atmosphere; encourages risks Relaxed, patient atmosphere; encourages risks Focus on learning goals- Achievement goal theory----mastery learning rather than just performance goals Focus on learning goals- Achievement goal theory----mastery learning rather than just performance goals Caring community of learners Caring community of learners Appropriate Level of Difficulty--- Content not too familiar or easy Content not too familiar or easy Content not too hard or unfamiliar Content not too hard or unfamiliar Success achieved with persistence Success achieved with persistence
Essential Preconditions for Successful Use of Motivational Strategies (cont’d) Meaningful Learning Objectives— Meaningful Learning Objectives— Important knowledge or skills (worth learning) Important knowledge or skills (worth learning) Apply learning to students’ current frame of reference Apply learning to students’ current frame of reference Practice with application activities Practice with application activities Practice with problem-solving activities Practice with problem-solving activities Moderation and Variation in Strategy Use Strategies are used according to context Strategies are used according to context (situational ) (situational ) Even best strategies may become routine Even best strategies may become routine
Motivating by Maintaining Success Expectations Sense of Efficacy/Competence— confidence that one has ability (including specific strategies needed) to succeed on a task if one chooses to invest the necessary effort Attribution to Internal, Controllable Causes- tendency to credit successes to sufficient ability and reasonable effort, and attribute failures to insufficient effort, or use of inappropriate strategies Incremental Concept of Ability – perception of academic ability as potential developed rather than a fixed capacity
Helping Students Recognize Effort- Outcome Linkages Teacher Modeling Talk about your learning, demonstrate persistence Think out loud for your students Show confidence in students’ ability to persist and search for better strategies Socialization/Feedback Explain effort-outcome linkages Reassure students that persistence coupled with effort eventually pay off Recognize accomplishments and the effort they represent
Helping Students Recognize Effort- Outcome Linkages (cont’d) Portray Effort as Investment, Not Risk Communicate that learning takes time Communicate that persistence and careful work will yield knowledge and skills mastery Portray Skill Building as Incremental and Domain-Specific Help pupils see abilities are open to improvement Help students know they possess a great many abilities Help students realize domain-specific skills will help them learn other skills
Strategies for Supplying Extrinsic Motivation Provide rewards as incentives Material rewards Activity/privilege rewards Grades, awards, recognition Praise and social rewards Teacher rewards Call attention to the instrumental value of academic activities Apply to students’ current lives Show how life skills/social advancements result & relate personal experiences or anecdotes Note specific applications
Strategies for Supplying Extrinsic Motivation (cont’d) Structure appropriate competition Individual competition Group competition Emphasize content over winning Organize so everyone has a chance of winning Portray Skill building as Incremental and Domain-Specific Help pupils see abilities are open to improvement Help students know they possess many abilities Help students realize domain-specific skills will help them learn other skills Focus on Mastery Stress quality of task engagement Stress continual progress of individuals Treat errors as learning opportunities w/ additional practice
Strategies for Capitalizing on Students Intrinsic Motivation Self-determination theory- 1) autonomy (self-determination) 2) Competence (skills for controlling the environment) 3) Relatedness (affiliation with others) Interest theory- 1) Focused attention because value or enjoy content 2) Individual interest- disposed to particular content 3) Situational interest- triggers interest to explore
Strategies for Capitalizing on Students Intrinsic Motivation (cont’d) Opportunities for active response Opportunities for active response Inclusion of higher level objectives and divergent questions Inclusion of higher level objectives and divergent questions Feedback features Feedback features Incorporation of gamelike features Incorporation of gamelike features Opportunities to create finished products Opportunities to create finished products Inclusion of fantasy or simulation elements Inclusion of fantasy or simulation elements Opportunities for students to interact with teacher and peers. Opportunities for students to interact with teacher and peers.
Strategies for Stimulating Student Motivation to Learn Model your own motivation to learn Communicate desirable expectations and attributions Minimize performance anxiety Project intensity (communicating the importance) Project enthusiasm & appreciation for the task Induce curiosity or suspense Make abstract content more personal, concrete or familiar
Strategies for Stimulating Student Motivation to Learn (cont’d) Induce dissonance or cognitive conflict Induce students to generate their own motivation to learn State learning goals/objectives OR provide advance organizers MODEL TASK-RELATED THINKING & PROBLEM SOLVING Model patience, confidence & persistence in seeking solutions Induce metacognitive awareness of learning strategies Actively preparing to learn Committing material to memory—rehearsal/repeating, copying, underlining key words, making notes, using imagery Encoding or elaborating on the information presented Organizing and structuring content Monitoring comprehension and desirable affect (relaxed, not anxious)
Question to summarize motivation…… Question to summarize motivation…… What causes students be alienated to the point of persistent inattention to lessons and failure to complete assignments?