Tone the author’s attitude toward the subject matter about which he/she is writing EX: sarcastic, indignant, concerned, angry, skeptical
Mood the emotions the author creates in the reader through the use of descriptive details
Plot the story or sequence of events in something such as a novel, play, or movie
Exposition the part of a literary or dramatic work in which the basic facts of setting and character are made known Setting –Time –Place –Historical Significance Character(s)
Rising Action plot events which occur between the introduction of the conflict and the climax, characterized by increasing tension and action
Climax the most important or exciting point in a story in which the outcome of the conflict is determined
Falling Action plot events which occur between the climax and the resolution (denouement) in which the loose ends are tied up
Resolution the plot events following the falling action in which the final outcome is revealed and a sense of closure is provided
Setting the time, place, and historical significance in which a story takes place
Character(s) one of the people portrayed in a book, play, or movie
main character; the most important character in a novel, play, story, or other literary work Protagonist
Antagonist somebody or something opposing or in conflict with the protagonist
Minor Characters Other characters who do not take part in the main conflict
Characterization the way in which the writer portrays the characters in a book, play, or movie
Direct Characterization characterization in which the author tells the reader what the character is like EX: He was a mean, old, grouchy man who kicked puppies just for fun.
Indirect Characterization characterization in which the author reveals the character through the character’s words, actions, and interactions with other characters EX: “Well,” snapped the old woman, “you kids better got off my lawn! I don’t like kids!”
Static Character characters who do not change over the course of the literary work
Dynamic Character characters who do change as they progress through the plot events
Round or Flat Characters Round characters are well-developed and multi-dimensional; usually main characters Flat characters are under-developed and one dimensional; usually minor characters
Point of View the perspective on events of the narrator or a character in a story First Person Third Person Limited Third Person Omniscient
First Person Point of View the narrator is a character in the story; refers to himself as I, me, my… I was so nervous when I met the man of my dreams.
Third Person Point of View the narrator is not a character in the story, and refers to all characters using third person pronouns such as he, she, it…
Third Person Omniscient POV reveals the inner thoughts and feelings of multiple characters, frequently switching the perspective from which the story is told Sara could not believe he was telling that old joke again! Joe thought he was the funniest guy at the party!
Third Person Limited POV reveals the inner thoughts and feelings of only one character, telling the story from that character’s perspective Sara could not believe that Joe was telling that old joke again!
Conflict opposition between characters or forces in a literary work that moves the plot forward
Internal Conflict man versus self; conflict in which the protagonist wrestles with his own conscience or desires
External Conflict conflict between the protagonist and a person or force outside of himself –man versus man –man versus society –man versus nature
Foreshadowing hints within a literary work at events which will occur later
Flashback a scene from the past that appears in a story out of chronological order, to explain something in the present