STRUCTURE beginning middle end beginning middle end Greet Introduce yourself Introduce talk Outline talk Conclude talk Invite questions Go through main points Summarise main points
“TO FAIL TO PREPARE IS TO PREPARE TO FAIL” 1. Introductions and an icebreaker (story, statement, fact, joke, quotation, activity to warm up); the purpose (story, statement, fact, joke, quotation, activity to warm up); the purpose 2. Main points (in sequential order of increasing importance, ideas from the simplest to the most complex) (in sequential order of increasing importance, ideas from the simplest to the most complex) 3. Closing (summary, conclusion)
PACKAGING Well prepared: Well prepared: WHAT? (What is the purpose?) FOR WHOM? (Who is the audience?) (What does the audience know?) (What does the audience know?) WHEN? (How much time?) WHERE? (Place?) HOW? (Visual aids)
THE VOICE The most valuable tool volume (to be heard, lower to draw the audience, raise to make a point) audience, raise to make a point) tone (fear, laughter) pitch (how long a sound lasts. Varying the pace maintains interest) pace maintains interest)
THE BODY good posture eye contact facial expressions gestures proximity (comfortable distance for interaction, look for signals: rocking, leg swinging tapping...) look for signals: rocking, leg swinging tapping...) voice (modulate to avoid a monotone voice)
ACTIVE LISTENING gain information gain information determine how another person feels determine how another person feels understand others understand others
NERVES Tension ruins the voice, posture, spontaneity The presenter starts to read directly from the notes The presenter starts to read directly from the notes Help: visualize the room/audience get a drink of water get a drink of water take a deep breath take a deep breath say: I can do it! say: I can do it! WINERS CONTINUE! LOSERS STOP! WINERS CONTINUE! LOSERS STOP!
QUESTIONS reflect interest allow time at the end, pause about 6 seconds to allow the audience to gather seconds to allow the audience to gather thoughts thoughts clarify if you do not understand if you do not know, tell them you will get back to them get back to them
TIPS AND TECHNIQUES Give handouts if you want your audience to remember better Speak to the audience, not to the visual aids Do not stand between the visual aid and the audience Speak clearly and loudly, not in a monotone voice
Write no more than 7 lines of text per page and no more than 7 words per line (the 7 + 7 rule) Get to the presentation before the audience, be the last one to leave Listen intently to comments and opinions Circulate around the room as you speak Vary your techniques: lecture, discussion, debate, films, slides, reading...
Use bright and bold colours Consider the time of day Finish slightly early than overrun
1. RB : pp.49/50 – Read the text and finish the notes 2. RB: p. 56 - Complete the presentation 3. MK: pp. 181-184 – study Appendix 1