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Struggle for Power in England

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1 Struggle for Power in England
Middle Ages Struggle for Power in England

2 Struggle for Power in England
Section 4 Struggle for Power in England Anglo-Saxon and Norman England Before the1000’s – Kings and lords struggled for power Anglo-Saxon England By 450 Roman rule in Britain ended Germanic tribes moved in Culture that emerged called “Anglo-Saxon” Over time they formed several independent kingdoms Northumbria – Northern England Mercia – Central England Wessex – Southern England Kingdoms divided into districts called Shires Governed by shire-reeve which becomes the word Sheriff

3 Alfred the Great 800’s Kings of Wessex controlled
Vikings (Danes) challenged Wessex kings Over ran much of England Alfred the Great CE Wessex King Attacked Danes-lost fight Made a temporary peace and spent 5 years built powerful army and navy 876 - Attacked Danes-won in 886 Treaty allowed Danes to live and govern themselves

4 Alfred’s successors Strengthened the government Spread Christianity Unified country Danes began to attack again 1013 Danes control England til 1042 Anglo-Saxons choose Edward the Confessor

5 The Norman Conquest Edward died had no heir in 1066
Duke William of Normandy From France A distant relative - claimed the throne Anglo-Saxons refused to recognize his claim Selected Harold of Wessex to be king Edwards brother-in-law William was determined to win the throne Crossed the English Channel with group of knights Defeated Harold’s army Crowned William I King of England Known as William the Conqueror

6 The Conqueror and his Successors
William the Conqueror ruled from 1066–1087 Brought feudalism to England King, not nobles held supreme authority lord swore loyalty to king Stopped the lords from uniting against him Scattered their fiefs throughout England Sent royal commissioners to count shire’s people, assess land holdings, and measure type and value of property to set up accurate tax system Domesday book


8 Reforms under William’s Successors
Henry I – Ruled from Williams son, Able ruler Exchequer-finance dept. handled king’s finances government more efficient Sent traveling judges throughout the country to try cases Weakened feudal lords Kings royal court, not the lords feudal courts dispensed justice

9 Henry II Henry II - 1154 – 1189 increases royal authority
England’s legal system grew Traveling judges established routes or circuits Used a 12 member jury system Replaced trial by ordeal or combat Decided civil as well as criminal cases Vassals could pay the king a fee instead of performing military service Money used to hire soldiers Military loyal because they are paid

10 Henry II Sought to try members of the clergy who had already been judged in church courts To decrease the influence of church courts Thomas Becket - Archbishop of Canterbury Refused to allow his clergy to be tried Becket and Henry became bitter enemies 4 of the king’s knights murdered the archbishop in his cathedral, to help the king Henry denied any part of the murder, but did penance to appease the church Henry leaves church alone

11 Henry II The Last years of his reign were trouble
Sons plotted against him Marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine was stormy She brought into their marriage a lot of French lands which ended up causing conflicts with the French Overall Henry strengthened the English monarchy, reduced influence of the nobility.

12 King John and Magna Carta
Henry II’s son Demanded nobles pay more taxes To support wars with France His actions led nobles to revolt In 1215 group of nobles joined together against the king Threatened armed revolt against him Forced John to accept a document--the Magna Carta

13 Magna Carta and beyond Magna Carta
Protected the liberties of the nobles Provided a limited outline of rights for England’s ordinary people King John agreed no new or special taxes without consent of the Great Council A body of nobles and church leaders who advised the king Promised not to take property with out paying for it Promised not to interfere with justice of the courts Agreed to trials by jury of peers Importance: King is not above the law

14 Parliament 1260’s - Nobles revolt against Henry III
Threatened the Monarchy led by Simon de Montfort (Lord) Tried to build middle class support for the nobles To unite against the king The Great Council – Nobles and Clergy Middle class representatives becomes the English Parliament divided into 2 “houses” Nobles and clergy - House of Lords Knights and burgesses - House of Commons

15 Common Law Edward I - ruled from 1272 – 1307
One of England’s greatest monarchs Divided the king’s court into 3 branches Court of Exchequer kingdom’s financial accounts Tried tax cases Court of Common Pleas cases between ordinary citizens Court of the King’s Bench Conducted trials concerning king or government Decisions made by royal courts were collected and used as the basis from future court verdicts Known as Common Law Applied equally to all citizens Living Law, not based on code, but on modern times.

16 Rise of Capetian Kings France
Last of the Frankish/Carolingian kings die. Nobles choose Hugh Capet as King of France Will work to create a strong central government Create Estates General Representative body of the three social classes Commoners, nobility, and clergy unsuccessful, no support at local levels France remains feudal

17 Clash over Germany and Italy
After Charlemagne’s death his empire slowly fell apart Several of Charlemagne’s descendants in Germany inherited the title of Holy Roman Emperor However they did not really rule Italy Part ruled by the Pope Part ruled by the Arab Muslims

18 Holy Roman Empire Germany Feudal lords elected Otto I - 936
Known as Otto the Great Worked to developed a strong kingdom in Germany In 951 Otto attacks territory in northern Italy Later Pope John XII struggled with Roman nobles Begged Otto for help Pope crowned him ‘Emperor of the Romans’ in 962 Same title given to Charlemagne Otto rules Germany and northern Italy Germany becomes a major power

19 Holy Roman Empire Henry III - 1046 – 1056
Viewed the church as a branch of the imperial government Expected the church to actively support the empire and its ruler 3 different men claimed the papacy during his rule Removed them from office and elected a German pope Also chose next three popes

20 Struggles - Papacy vs. European Rulers
Henry III dies 5 yr old son Henry IV king German nobility sees this as an opportunity to regain their independence The church also moves to restore its power At age 15, he tries to strengthen his rule Pits him against Pope Gregory VII one of the most powerful popes in the Middle Ages Clash between Pope and Henry IV

21 Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory was a strong & able leader
Worked to bring spiritual reform Increased the power and authority of the papacy Believed the church was the supreme spiritual and temporal power in the earth Thought had control over rulers and people

22 Pope Gregory and Henry IV
Main Conflict involved lay investiture Appointment of bishops by temporal rulers Henry believed he had the right to appoint bishops Gregory opposed this In reaction he excommunicated Henry Also released Henry’s subject from their vows of loyalty Urged nobles to elect another king

23 Fearing rebellion Henry sought the pope’s mercy
Imperial Submission Fearing rebellion Henry sought the pope’s mercy Traveled to meet the pope Met in the mountains of northern Italy Bitter cold, icy mountain paths Pope made Henry wait 3 days to see him Henry pleaded for the pope’s mercy Pope revoked his excommunication

24 Imperial Submission Struggle continued over lay investiture
Finally representatives for both sides meet Agreement reached called Concordat of Worms Named after city they met in Limited imperial power of the German church Emperor could appoint bishops to fiefs (land grant) Only the pope had power to name bishops Recognized the spiritual leadership of the pope

25 Frederick Barbarossa Frederick I (Frederick of the Red Beard)
Ruled Germany from Set out to capture Lombard states in northern Italy Captured Milan Destroyed city and drove out the people Other city states and Pope unite to form the Lombard League Raised a powerful army – defeated Fredrick

26 Strongest of the medieval pope’s Skillful political leader
Innocent III 1198 – 1216 Strongest of the medieval pope’s Skillful political leader Believed in the supreme earthly power of the papacy Felt he had authority to settle all political as well as spiritual problems Involved himself with disputes all over Europe Used his powers of excommunication and interdiction

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