Presentation on theme: "The Spread of Protestantism. Protestant - Originally the term for Luther’s supporters who “protested” against Catholic loyalists in Germany Reformation."— Presentation transcript:
Protestant - Originally the term for Luther’s supporters who “protested” against Catholic loyalists in Germany Reformation - A movement begun in the 1500s to make corrective changes (reforms) to the Catholic Church.
What forms of corruption existed within the Church during the Late Middle Ages? Popes used excommunication to force monarchs to obey the Church. Many priest were illiterate Many clergy broke their vows of chastity Some officials lead lives of luxury and leisure Some clergy: –Charged repentant Christians to see holy remains and objects –Sold church offices to the highest bidder (simony) –Sold indulgences
How was the power of the papacy weakened? 1.) Babylonian Captivity (1305-1375) Philip IV (France) quarreled with pope over his power to tax the clergy Pope Boniface kidnapped in 1296 and replaced with French pope, Clement V Seven popes ruled the Church from Avignon, France Many Christians thought these popes were only puppets of the French king
How was the power of the papacy weakened? 2.)The Great Schism (1378-1417) Papacy moved back to Rome in 1376 French cardinals elected a new pope, Clement VII Both Urban VI and Clement VII claimed to be the rightful pope Many Christians questioned the authority of the papacy
Who were some of the first people to speak out against Church corruption and teachings? John Wycliffe of England Thought Christians didn’t need Church or sacraments to achieve salvation Regarded Bible as most important source of religious authority Completed first translation of Bible to English Outcome: the Church persecuted his followers, the Lollards, as heretics
Who were some of the first people to speak out against Church corruption and teachings? Jan Huss of Bohemia Criticized wealth of Church Wanted religious services conducted in the language of the worshippers Opposed the sale of indulgences Outcome: was burned at stake for refusing to accept importance of church rituals
In what other ways did people call for reform? Catherine of Siena Popularized mysticism Believed people could experience God through intense prayer Outcome: maintained that Christians didn’t need priests, rituals, or sacraments. Girolamo Savonarola of Florence Launched crusade against immoral society Encouraged book burning Claimed Vatican was filled with sin and corruption Outcome: was burned at stake by angry citizens of Florence.
Why did Luther question Church practices and teaching? Troubled by idea that salvation was attainable through good works Interpreted St. Paul to mean that path to salvation was by faith alone Believed forgiveness for sins could come only from God’s mercy Angered by Tezel’s sale of indulgence
What was his early life like? Son of middle-class German parents Studied law Became a Catholic monk
How did his criticisms expand into an effort to form a new church? Wrote 95 Theses to start debate on Church abusesWrote 95 Theses Published books and pamphlets questioning Church teachings Ideas for reform led to a new church: –Congregations choose their own ministers –Worship of saints and holy days was considered sinful –Mass conducted in German instead of Latin –Clergy allowed to marry
Why did his reforms create widespread revolt in Germany? Peasants, believing everyone was equal under God, revolted against lords Princes, who wanted freedom from the pope, seized Church land Peace of Augsburg forced many to move in order to worship freely
How did Luther’s ideas reflect Humanism? Why did the Catholic Church see Luther as a threat?
What other groups separated from the Catholic Church and formed new religions? Anabaptists (1525): Thought Christians should not be baptized until adulthood Believed true Christians should form a separate community separation of Church and State; were pacifists (refused to fight in wars).
What other groups separated from the Catholic Church and formed new religions? Anglicans (1534): founded by King Henry VIII of England King Henry enraged by pope’s decision not to grant him divorceKing Henry Believed the monarch, not the pope, was supreme religious authority of England Broke away, but beliefs were almost the same as the Catholic Church
What other groups separated from the Catholic Church and formed new religions? Calvinists (1546): founded by John Calvin John Calvin was born in France and was only 12 years old when Martin Luther was standing trial and refusing to recant at the Council of Worms. But Calvin heard about the controversy and, even at 12, was intrigued by the excommunicated monk Luther’s bold defense of himself and his belief in the Scriptures. To stand in a courtroom and defend oneself against the powerful Church was an enticing scenario to young Calvin who decides to study law at the University of Paris
John Calvin Believed in predestination (God had predetermined who would obtain salvation) Thought a disciplined, austere life would prove who had been chosen Government should be in the hands of religious leaders (a theocracy) and society should be governed by strict laws of morality.
Why did Protestantism spread beyond Germany? Political leaders look for ways to escape power of Catholic Church People were tired of Church abuses and corruption Charismatic individuals questioned Church teachings and provided leadership Rising literacy rate allowed for rapid spread of new ideas