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Michelle Ros Holly Yost

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1 Michelle Ros Holly Yost
Hepatitis Michelle Ros Holly Yost

2 Background “Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver
It’s caused by the viruses A,B,C,D,E, alcohol and drug abuse, and autoimmune disorders It can go away on its own, but if left untreated, it leads to scarring of the liver It can be infectious and noninfectious About 4.4 million Americans have hepatitis, but most aren’t aware of it

3 Symptoms For all types of hepatitis, A-E, early symptoms include:
Diarrhea Fatigue Loss of appetite Fever Muscle/joint aches Nausea Mild abdominal pain Vomiting Weight loss If allowed to progress, symptoms grow to include: Circulation problems (drug/toxin induced) Dark urine Dizziness (toxic drug) Drowsiness (toxic drug) Enlarged spleen (alcohol) Headache (toxic drug) Itchy skin Light colored, feces containing pus Jaundice (yellow skin)

4 Hepatitis A (infectious/short incubation)
Highly contagious Caused by infection with the hep A virus (HAV) through: Fecal-oral route Contaminated food or water Lasts for about 28 days in the body Replicates in liver Shed out in feces in high concentrations Does not develop into chronic infection or liver disease Preventable with vaccine Diagnosis: detection of hep A antibody through blood test Treatment: no specific treatment; the body clears it on its own but the patient should avoid drugs and alcohol to allow the liver to heal

5 Hepatitis B (Serum/long-incubation)
Caused by presence of hep B virus (HBV) from: Exchange of contaminated blood, human secretions, and feces Also transmitted sexually and during pregnancy Incubation period lasts around 6 weeks-6 months Can be self-limited or chronic Preventable with vaccine Diagnosis: blood tests to examine specific antigens/ liver biopsy Treatment: the patient should eat a diet rich in proteins and carbs to repair damaged liver cells; may also be prescribed interferon

6 Hepatitis C Most chronic bloodborne disease in U.S
Transmitted through blood donations HCV is detectable in blood 1-3 weeks after exposure Chronically ill patients may experience active liver disease Some people who are infected may not feel the affects of the disease but they are still susceptible to other chronic liver diseases Diagnosis: blood tests/ liver biopsy Treatment: Patient may be prescribed pegylated interferon and ribavirin.

7 Hepatitis D (Delta Hepatitis)
Caused by HDV which requires presence of HBV surface antigens to replicate Occurs only in people already infected with hepatitis B Transmitted through percutaneous/mucosal contact with infected blood No vaccine exists but a hep B vaccine will prevent it There is no known treatment

8 Hepatitis E Specifically occurs in patients who have travelled to epidemic areas Not common in US More common in young adults and more severe in pregnant women Shed in feces Caused by ingestion of fecal matter Does not lead to chronic infection There are no vaccines yet and no treatments

9 SOurces "Hepatitis." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 17 Sept Web. 14 May 2013.  "What Is Hepatitis? Symptoms, Causes and Treatments." Medical News Today. MediLexicon International, 13 Apr Web. 14 May 2013. Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Hepatitis." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 01 Sept Web. 14 May 2013. Diseases. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse, Print.

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