Presentation on theme: "Electricity and Magnetism Mr D. Patterson. Outcomes explain why electrical energy is transmitted as AC at very high voltages, and describe and explain."— Presentation transcript:
Outcomes explain why electrical energy is transmitted as AC at very high voltages, and describe and explain the impact on everyday life of electrical power generation and transmission—this will include applying the relationships:
Australian homes use 240 V Power requirements for a city are in the order of thousands of MW P=VI If power plants supplied 240 V, current requirements would be millions of amperes. This needs a cable about 1 m in diameter
Can we make such a wire? A 1m diameter power line, running even 10 m along a highway would weigh 211 kg and cost $400 as of 2013. There is a better way
Power Transmission Australian homes use 240 V Power requirements must be met. P=VI Supplying a larger voltage will mean less current is required
Power plants can produce much higher than 240 V, but not nearly high enough. A step up transformer is used to up the voltage to a few hundred thousand volts for transmission. This requires AC, as DC does not work with transformers
Power loss The amount of energy lost through the wires is also reduced when using high voltage, low current transmission 240 V OR 500, 000 V?
How much power loss? Try this calculation: City X needs 200 MW. 1. How much power is lost through a power line of resistance 4.00 Ω when transmitted at 240 V? 2. How much power is lost when it is transmitted at 500 kV? Important: We do not use because V would be the voltage drop across the power line, not the voltage supplied to the city.
Power loss The power lost through a transmission line is proportional to current 2
The voltage is stepped down in stages as the power grid splits up into suburbs, streets and then individual houses.
AC or DC transmission Power is typically transmitted as AC because it can easily be stepped up and down using transformers
AC or DC transmission AC wastes more energy than DC at the “same voltage” 800 kV The highest voltage is around 800 kV before wires will ionise the air around them causing a short circuit A lot of the power is wasted at lower voltages of an AC transmission The average voltage is called the RMS voltage A DC transmission could transmit at the highest safe voltage all the time, which is more efficient than AC DC voltage
AC or DC transmission The world mainly uses AC because despite the energy loss draw backs, it is cheap to step up and step down. As we find cheaper ways to step up and down DC, this may change in the future.