2 Geographic RegionsRepresent great clusters of common human activity or common physical characteristics.Physical / Natural CharacteristicsLandforms, Climate, VegetationHuman / Cultural CharacteristicsGovernment, Religion, Ethnicity, Population, DiseaseMay change over time
3 Geographic Regions Do NOT have definite borders May differ based on point of viewSeparated from other regions by transition zones
4 Transition Zones Edges of regions An area of constant change where two adjacent regions joinMarked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in the characteristics that distinguish neighboring regionsArea of mixed characteristics; possible tension between culture groups Example: Muslims versus Hindus in Pakistan and India.
5 Video Clip: Gandhi http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4DTX5JPgKc Look at who is being separated….are they getting along? Do they want to be separated?
6 Sub-RegionsAll regions can be divided into physical features and human characteristicsExample: United States’ sub-regions may include:Northeast, Midwest, South, North, West CoastMetropolitan and Suburban areas= human (cultural) propertiesPhysical Regions (Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes)Texas Example:, Piney Woods, West Texas, The Valley, Coast, East Texas, PanhandleRegion and sub-region boundaries are based on criteria we establish
7 Political Geography and Gov What is Political Geography? The study of government systems from around the world.What is Government? An organization that people set up to protect their community and to enforce its rules.
8 Roles of the Gov To protect life To protect liberty To protect the property of members of the communityTo provide goods that the people cannot provide on their own
9 BordersPolitical Borders – determined by government and are artificial (imaginary lines)Example: North and South KoreaNatural Borders –created by physical characteristics that divide one place from another.Example: Rio Grande River (Mexico and US)
11 What are nations and states? State – an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal and external affairs. Sometimes called “country” .Nation – people w/ a common culture living in a common territory and having a strong sense of unityNation State – when a nation and a state occupy the same territoryStateless Nation - some groups have a common nationality but no territoryStateless-nation Example: Palestinians, Kurds
12 Monarchy Ruled by a monarch headed by a King or Queen (the title). The ruler inherits their power - when the ruler dies, power is passed to one of the monarch’s children or close relative.These monarchs (kings, sultans, emperors) surround themselves with followers and advisors who help them govern.Pros – ______________Cons – Limits on ______________
13 Constitutional Monarchy Monarchs share power with an representative legislatureParliamentUsually the monarch serves as a symbolic head of state while elected members of Parliament govern the country.Example: United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Jordan
15 Republic A republic is a government without a king or a queen. Usually when a country overturns its monarchy it will become a republic.Republics can be democratic, theocratic, or parliamentary.An example would be the United States, which is a Democratic Republic
16 Democracy Government authority is based on the will of the people. People either vote on issues directly, or they elect representatives who make government decisions for them.People have certain rights – whereas they can criticize the government freely.Types: Direct Democracy, Representative Democracy, Modern Democracies
17 Direct DemocracyThe very first known democracy was in ancient Greece in the 5th Century BCE.Democracy is Greek for “people power”.Citizens assembled to make decisions for their city- states.They voted on these issues directly. This is where the term direct-democracy evolved from.
18 Representative Democracy It is a democracy where different social groups elect their own representatives, who then met in assemblies.Nobles were represented in the SenateGovernment power was divided between two branches and voting was on various issues.Romans were the first to develop the representative democracy.
19 Dictatorship One individual holds complete political power The leader either seizes control by force or is placed into a position of authority by othersThe citizens have little influence over governmental policy and do NOT have the right to choose their own leadersIf a small group holds the power, called an “oligarchy”Pros – easy, quick to makes big changesCons – corruption, dissent is not allowed
20 Activity Government Comparison Chart Completed in class over the next two days.Stations are timed.Rotate every 10 minutes.Due end of next week.
21 TotalitarianismA form of dictatorship that seeks to control all aspects of social life within a countryThis control extends to the public life, private life, communications, economy and government system.Government also controls television, radio, and newspapers.Censor of books and articles that criticize the governmentNo separate political parties, labor unions, or other organizations are allowed.Government either controls or prohibits all social and religious groups.
22 Chinese Censorship http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YeFzeNAHEhU
23 CommunismThe government plans and controls the economy and a single - often authoritarianparty holds powerThe elimination of private/individual ownership of property or capitalExample: Cuba, People’s Republic of China, North KoreaPros – Classless SocietyCons – lack of Freedom
25 TheocracyGovernment run by spiritual leaders. It is an old form of government, like a monarchy.Government claims to be directed by God or divinely blessed.No legal separation between church and stateCitizens of other faiths are often excluded or expelled.Ancient times rulers were often priests.
26 Anarchy of Failed State No one in charge, only gangs and warlords.Fueled by drugs or desire to command resources.Happens when a country collapses.Example: Somalia, parts of West Africa
27 ActivityComplete Gov Comparison Chart.Due at end of class.