Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Development of Nation-States Europe in the 14 th and 15 th Centuries.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Development of Nation-States Europe in the 14 th and 15 th Centuries."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Development of Nation-States Europe in the 14 th and 15 th Centuries

2 During most of the Feudal era, monarchs had limited power Modern nations did not exist Powerful nobles often had as much power as monarchs Nobles maintained their own armies By the 14 th century, monarchs began to consolidate their power and modern nations began to develop

3 France

4 The Last Capetian Kings Philip IV “The Fair” Struggled with papacy over taxation of clergy Dissolved Knights Templar First Estates General Relied on professional ministers to run government

5 Succeeded in turn by his three sons: –Louis X –Philip V –Charles IV All three died without having male heirs Crown was offered to Philip of Valois

6 Monarchs of the 100 Years War Philip VI John II “The Good” Charles V “The Wise” Charles VI “The Mad” Charles VII “The Dauphin” Philip VI – first Valois monarch

7 Charles VII (1422 – 1461) Ended 100 Years War Consolidated royal authority Pragmatic Sanction of 1438 First French standing army

8 Louis XI – “The Spider King” 1461 - 1485 Used assassination, arrest and public execution to extend his power Adds much of Burgundy to France Stimulated French economy

9 By end of 15 th century France was a unified nation under a strong monarch France also controlled parts of Flanders Interested in extending their power into Italy, especially the Kingdom of Naples

10 Spain

11 In 8 th century, Visigothic Spain was conquered by Berber Muslims By 10 th century Reconquista began By 13 th century the only Muslim part of Spain was Granada In 1450, Spain was divided into several kingdoms – the most important were Protugal, Castile and Leon, and Aragon


13 Castile and Leon Originally 2 nations that were united in 1230 Involved in Reconquista – “castile” means castle 1454 Isabella of Castile ascended the throne – great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt Married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469

14 Aragon Looked towards Mediterranean Acquired Sicily 1282 Acquired Kingdom of Naples 1443 Acquired Navarre mid 1400s Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castile 1469

15 Ferdinand and Isabella Arms of CastileArms of Aragon

16 Ferdinand and Isabella with their daughter, Juana

17 United their two countries Completed Reconquista in 1492 Established a program of religious orthodoxy that led to – –Inquisition (1478) –Deportation of Jews and Muslims in 1492 Financed Columbus’ voyages and expanded Spain's territories into the “New World” Council of the Indies (1524)


19 Juana “the Mad” Ferdinand and Isabella’s heir Married Philip “the Handsome” – son of Holy Roman Emperor Power struggle after Isabella’s death in 1504 between Ferdinand and Philip

20 Philip died suddenly of typhus in 1506 Ferdinand declared Juana insane and imprisoned her in castle at Tordesillas After Ferdinand’s death, Juana abdicated in favor of her son, Charles I (later Charles V HRE) Philip and Juana

21 The Holy Roman Empire

22 First established when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne in 800 Major power in Europe between 900 and 1100 The HRE was elected by German princes but confirmed and crowned by the pope Empire difficult to unify because it contained many different peoples, languages and cultures


24 Charles (r 1347-1361) –“Golden Bull” established electors: Archbishops of Mainz, Trier and Cologne, King of Bohemia, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Margrave of Brandenburg, Duke of Saxony Sigismund (r 1411-1437) –Council of Constance –No male heir; daughter married Habsburg prince Albert Albert –Only reigned for one year

25 Frederick III Habsburg Habsburgs will rule Holy Roman Empire (and then Austria) until 1919 Last HRE to be crowned by the pope “Let others lead wars; you happy Austria, marry!”

26 Maximilian I Expanded HRE and firmly established the Habsburgs as a European power Married Mary of Burgundy and added the Netherlands to Habsburg domains Claimed Milan through second marriage to daughter of the Duke

27 Charles V Son of Juana of Castile and Philip the Handsome Inherits both Spain and the Holy Roman Empire Elected Emperor at age of 18

28 Habsburg Domains during reign of Charles V

29 England

30 Saxon England was conquered in 1066 by William, Duke of Normandy The English monarchs quickly consolidated their power and united the country The culture and language of the English nobility was Norman French throughout much of the Middle Ages

31 The Plantagenet's William’s son Henry I left the throne to his daughter Matilda – resulted in over 20 years of civil war Henry II – son of Matilda and Count Geoffrey of Anjou – inherited the throne in 1154 Henry II

32 Henry was King of England, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Brittany and claimed lordship over Ireland. In 1170, the English monarch controlled more French territory than did the King of France!

33 The Plantagenet's and the Development of Parliament Originated as the Great Council – whose origins go back to Saxon times First became an institution under Edward I in 1264 “Model Parliament” of 1295 – Parliament consisted of “Lords” (nobility and bishops) and “Commons” (knights and burgesses from the shires) Had power over taxation

34 1327 Parliament was instrumental in the deposition of Edward II and replacing him with his son, Edward III During the reign of Edward III: –Parliament was first divided into two separate “Houses” – Lords and Commons –The office of “Speaker of the House” was created –Parliament increases in power as the king requests more money for the 100 Years War

35 Edward III English language replaced French as the language of the law courts and Parliament Introduced the title of “Duke” for nobles who are closely related to the monarch “Order of the Garter” – established 1348

36 Richard II Grandson of Edward III Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 Unpopular with many of the nobles because: –Does not pursue the French wars –Interested in cultural issues rather than fighting –Prefers his “favorites’, who are not from traditional noble houses

37 Lancastrian Monarchs Richard II was deposed by his cousin Henry of Lancaster – leading to the rule of the...

38 Henry IV (1399 – 1413) Henry V (1413 – 1422) Henry VI (1422 – 1461 and 1470 -1471)

39 The Wars of the Roses

40 A dynastic war over which descendants of Edward III should rule England Would not have happened if Henry VI had not had periodic bouts of insanity inherited from his French grandfather, King Charles “the Mad”

41 Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

42 Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

43 Battles of the Wars of the Roses

44 “The Princes in the Tower” A Romantic 19th century painting

45 Richard III

46 Margaret Beaufort Grand-daughter of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford Married at age 13 to Edmund Tudor, the half-brother of Henry VI Had one son – Henry Tudor Was very well educated and deeply religious

47 The House of Tudor Henry Tudor defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in August, 1485 Married Elizabeth of York – the oldest daughter of Edward IV – and united the Houses of Lancaster and York Not a popular monarch, but does bring an end to the civil wars

48 Henry VII and Elizabeth of York


50 By 1500 - The monarch was supreme – there were no powerful nobles to challenge him Parliament had authority to depose or name the monarch Parliament had authority over taxation England and Wales were united; England claimed Ireland and controlled large parts of the island

Download ppt "The Development of Nation-States Europe in the 14 th and 15 th Centuries."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google