2 Ruler Peter the Great Early life: At age 10 came to the throne, but did not take control of government until 1689In 1697 he studied western technology, and noted the manners and homes.He adopted western ideas, technology, and culture or policy of westernization.
3 Most autocratic of Europe’s absolute monarchs. Leadership:Most autocratic of Europe’s absolute monarchs.He wanted to do three things:Strengthen the militaryExpanded Russian bordersCentralize Royal powerOne way to strengthen his power was to make landowning nobles or boyars to serve the state.
4 Expansion:Search for warm-water portLocated along the Black Sea, a port that was free of ice all year was a warm-water port.Peter the Great attempted to fight the Ottoman Empire and gain the warm-water port but was defeated.War with SwedenPeter the Great first suffered defeats over the Baltic region.In 1709 Peter defeated the Swedes and won land along the Baltic Sea.
5 Peter built a magnificent new capital city called St. Petersburg Peter’s CityPeter built a magnificent new capital city called St. PetersburgThe city located on the swampy shores of Neva River was to open a “window on the west”The city was symbol of Peter’s desire to forge a modern RussiaToward the PacificPeter signed a treaty with Qing China to define their common borders east.
6 Vitus Bering a Danish navigator explored an area known as the Bering Strait between Siberia and AlaskaRussia After the Ruler:Expanded Russian territoryGained ports on the Baltic SeaCreated a mighty armyEnded Russia’s long period of isolation
7 Ruler: Catherine the Great Early life:German princessAt age of 15 wed to the throne of RussiaCzar Peter III was murdered and Czarina Catherine the Great took the throne
8 Leadership:An Efficient RulerShe reorganized the provincial governmentShe codified the lawsShe began education for boys and girlsShe embraced western ideasA Ruthless Absolute MonarchShe allowed boyars tax exemptionsShe allowed boyars to increase their powers over the peasantsConditions for Russia grew worse during Catherine the Greats’ reign.
9 Three Monarchs Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, and Emperor Expansion:War with Ottoman Empire where Catherine the Great expanded her borders and gained warm-water port on the Black SeaPartition of PolandThree Monarchs Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, and EmperorJoseph II agree to divide up Poland instead of fighting one another.
10 Russia After the Ruler: Absolute Monarchs ruled 4 out of five leading powers in Europe.Radical changes shatter French monarchy, upset the balance of power and revolutionize European societies.