The 1990s are often referred to as years of large-scale international migration but in the Albanian case is the magnitude of the phenomenon of emigration which is remarkable because:
Emigration in Albania 1) It has started in July 1990 with nearly 5000 persons entered the embassies in Tirana of countries such as Italy, Germany, France and asked to leave the country. 2) This migration has continued and included the whole country was caught up in a general state of civil unrest, which claimed hundreds of lives in the tragic events of 1997.
Emigration in Albania 3.This migration has largely affected the younger population, which over the long term will affect not just the demography of the country but also social and economic developments there as well. 4.This emigration still continues but now it include the educated people that leave the country for going to USA and Canada.
Demographic changes during the transition, 1990-2001 The transition of Albanian society has been accompanied by changes in the demographic structure of the country. These changes have affected all demographic components: a. Fertility b. Mortality c. Migration.
Estimates, from censuses abroad (or other sources) The number of Albanian citizens is: In Greece 438,000 In Italy 173,000 In the US census, there were 44,913 persons of Albanian “ancestry”, foreign- born and entered from 1990 to March 2000. In Canada, 6,000 Albanians according to the census. In registers, there were 12,000 Albanians in Germany; 1,00 in Switzerland.
Italy and Greece: According to censuses: 16,500 of the Albanian citizens in Italy 13,000 in Greece; in the census year Around 30.000 emigrants - partly balanced by Albanian returning home yearly Annual net emigration is about 19,000.
Emigration impact on economy The remittances are one of the main pillars of the Albanian economy Their contribution is estimated at around 15% of GDP for a ten years period 58.8% of the trade balance for the same period
Emigration impact on the labour market The employment of Albanian emigrants on the the hosting countries has enriched them with: a general culture of labour management ethic on work knowledge for the new sectors of economy new technologies The transfer of the knowledge home will accompany their return
Emigration impact on the labour market 1.The opportunity to emigrate helps to reduce the level of unemployment 2.Smoothen difficult socio-economic conditions.
Conclusions Better collaborations between statistical offices It would be very useful for us to have real data and not estimates. t will be important to have information not only on citizenship, but also on country of birth and country of birth of parents (to take into account naturalizations and births from Albanian parents) Information on returning emigrants is also important specific sample surveys could be envisaged between Albania and hosts country