2 Ethos: The Writer’s Character or Image What character or image appears to the audience?Goodwill, authority, expertiseWriter’s ethos created by diction & styleWhat does Edlund use to help explain ethos?Examples: advertising & celebrities
3 Logos: Logical Arguments Valued over speaker’s character or audience’s emotionsFormal logic/scientific reasoningSyllogisms – a form of reasoningEnthymeme – type of syllogism that is assumed (can lead to faulty assumptions)Goal is to convince that assumptions are trueWhat does Edlund use to help explain logos?Historical Example: Bubonic Plague
4 Pathos: The Emotions of the Audience Emotions influence rational judgementsOften seen in politics and advertisingWhat does Edlund use to help explain pathos?Historical, Political, & Social Examples
5 Pyramid of AppealsYou will be creating a mini pyramid of the three appeals you’ve learned to demonstrate your understanding.What level of thinking does this involve?Comprehension & Application
6 Instructions1) Write an X on opposite sides of the cut triangle pieces.2) In the inside of the pyramid, label the 3 sides as Ethos, Pathos, Logos.3) Write your explanation of each appeal in complete sentences.
7 HW: Complete the pyramid Draw or find an image that represents the type of appeal being used.Draw or glue the image onto the outside of the pyramid.Your peers should be able to determine the appeal based on the image.We will staple the pyramids together in class the next day.
8 Expository SummaryWriting a summary for an expository (informational) text is similar to a literary summary but with minor differences.Topic Sentence – introduce the title, author, genre and explain what the text is aboutSupporting Sentences – discuss the main points and important information of the textConcluding Sentence – explain the author’s conclusionsWrite all parts of the summary in your own words. Make sure all facts and details are correct. Leave ALL opinions out of the summary. The summary should be BRIEF (5-8 sentences).
9 In his article “Three Ways to Persuade,” John Edlund discusses Aristotle’s ways to persuade: ethos, logos,and pathos. Ethos, Greek for ethics or ethical, describeshow the character or image of the speaker is presentedto the audience such as through their goodwill,authority, or expertise. Logos, which is valued overethos and pathos, uses formal reasoning like science orrhetorical reasoning like syllogisms and enthymemes.Pathos “influences rational judgments” because theytarget people’s emotions, which are motivating forces.Edlund explains that the use of these appeals can beeffective rhetorical techniques to persuade an audience.
10 Your TurnYou have 10 minutes to write an expository summary of “Three Ways to Persuade”.Use the Steps, Checklist, and Power Verbs handout to help you.Remember, NO opinions of the article – just retell the main points.Ready, Set, Go!
11 PAPA Square: Rhetorical Analysis Rhetoric = the art of writing effectivelyLet’s see how effective Edlund is in writing his articleWhat is Edlund’s argument in this article?Who is his audience?What is his purpose and the desired outcome of his audience?What persona or public image does he create with the language and tone he uses?What rhetorical strategies does he use to persuade? (Appeals, language, etc.)
12 PAPA Square: Rhetorical Analysis Answering these questions helps to analyze the rhetoric (persuasive skills) a writer usesAudience:Purpose:Argument:Persona:Rhetorical Methods& Strategies:Inform, persuade,entertainIntended readersThesis/main ideaPublic image/toneEthical AppealsEmotional AppealsLogical AppealsStylistic Devices
13 Let’s Practice Argument Purpose Audience Persona Rhetorical Strategies EthosPathosLogos
14 Your Turn: Name that Argument In groups, you will analyze a magazine advertisement. # yourselves 1, 2, 3, 4.1) Audience 2) Purpose 3) Argument 4) PersonaAll of you will work on the Rhetorical StrategiesEthos, Pathos, LogosOn a poster, create a PAPA square by filling in the appropriate information.Groups will share their findings with the class.
15 Your Turn: Name that Argument I will pass out the ads1 group member to get the poster1 group member to get the supply box – Keep all supplies organized!You have 15 minutes. Go!