2 Definition: In this kind of essay, we not only give information but also present an argument with the PROS (supporting ideas) and CONS (opposing ideas) of an argumentative issue.We should clearly take our stand and write as if we are trying to persuade an opposing audience to adopt new beliefs or behavior.The primary objective is to persuade people to change beliefs.
3 Read The Question Choosing an argumentative topic is not an easy task Read The Question Choosing an argumentative topic is not an easy task. The topic should be such that it should be narrowed down; X Marijuana should be considered illegal. (Not a good topic because it is too general. In some medical cases, marijuana is prescribed by the doctors and the patients are encouraged to use it in case of suffering from too much pain) √ Selling and using marijuana in public places should be considered illegal.
4 Things To Consider Before Starting To Write Step 1: Read and Underline Key Words Should governments spend money on space exploration, or should they spend the money on problems here first? Step 2: Write Down Other Words with the Same Meaning Governments = nations, countries, authorities, politicians Spend = allocate, give, allot, provide, budget, make available, waste, award Space exploration = space program, trips to the moon, the international space station, planets, planetary voyages Money = budgets, taxes, resources, Problems = concerns, issues, worries, disasters, threats, threatening, war, famine, poverty, education, homelessness, drugs, global warming Here = on earth, in our own countries, closer to home, in developing countries, foreign aid, Step 3: Use Your New Words in the Opening Sentences With many global concerns such as war, poverty, hunger and pollution, many people do not think that nations should waste money on exploring space. (One side) However, others are convinced that expenditure on space programs is justified. (Other side)
6 Introduction I. 1. General statement I. 2 Introduction I.1. General statement I.2. Transitional statement+ Argument I.3. Transitional statement+ Counterargument I.4. Contrast signal (however, although, even though, but, yet, etc) + Thesis statement (with the writer’s POV)
7 INTRODUCTION Write at least two sentences to describe the two sides of the present situation. Then, the thesis sentence will describe your point of view: One side of the present situation The other side of the present situation Thesis: What is going to be defended in the essay (and take your side here)
8 Example: Does space exploration benefit mankind Example: Does space exploration benefit mankind? Sentence For : Space, for many people, really is the final frontier. They are excited by the exploration and potential of space. Sentence Against: However, not everyone agrees that this money is well-spent. Many people feel that the problems here on earth should be solved before the journey to space begins. Thesis Sentence: While the problems here on earth are abundant, there’s no use of spending money for the unknown.
9 Some Statements To Start An Essay Throughout history, people have been confronted with challenges such as….. Just as marriage, divorce is an event which everybody can experience in life. Undoubtedly, interest circles will struggle to start and continue wars in the world…Lately/ recently/In today's world/ For decades / In the past / Nowadays
10 Body Paragraph 1 Paragraph 1 (Argument/Pro/For) B.1. (Transition, e.g. First of all, first, to start with) + Reason 1 B.2. Supporting statement B.3. Example B.4. Transition (therefore, as a result, consequently, etc) + Elaboration
11 Body Paragraph 2 (Argument/Pro/For) B. 1. (Transition, e. g Body Paragraph 2 (Argument/Pro/For) B.1. (Transition, e.g. Next, Another … is, Second) + Reason 2 B.2. Supporting statement B.3. Example B.4. Transition (therefore, as a result, consequently, etc) + Elaboration
12 Paragraph 3 (Counterargument/Con/Against + Refutation) R. 1 Paragraph 3 (Counterargument/Con/Against + Refutation) R.1. (Transition, e.g. However, On the other hand, Although, Even though) + Counterargument R.2. Reason 1 R.3. Example R.4. Transition (yet, but, however, etc) + Argument R.5. Refutation R.6. Transition (therefore, as a result, consequently, etc) + Elaboration
13 Conclusion C.1. Transition (In conclusion, To conclude, To sum up, In summary, In short, etc) + Rephrase the thesis statement C.2. Additional statement (Summarize the main points) C.3. Additional statement (Summarize the main points) C.4. General statement that leaves an impression on the reader (a clincher) C.5. Call for action (Look to the future)
14 Supporting our ideasIt is the most important part when persuading others. We are asking some people to change their beliefs or actions.We should be supporting our ideas with such facts, statistics and/or research that there should not be room for any doubts.Here are some faulty supports we should avoid:
15 Refuting opposing arguments Before we start saying that the opponents are wrong, we should specify their opposing ideas. Otherwise, it would be like hitting the other person with eyes closed.We should see clearly what we are hitting and be prepared beforehand so that he cannot hit us back.We can do this by knowing what we are refuting.
16 Pointing out opposing arguments (CONs): Opponents of this idea claim / maintain that … Those who disagree / are against these ideas may say / assert that …Some people may disagree with this idea, defending….
17 Stating specifically why they think that way: They put forward this idea because …They claim that … since …Reaching the turning point:However,butOn the other hand,
18 Give the other side's opinion, and then give YOUR opinion Some people think that… Although many people feel that… It is claimed that… Some people feel that… In one sentence:While it is true that… … some people believe…Despite the fact that millions of people die every year from lung cancer, many people think it is cool to smoke.Although many people think that…., I feel thatAlthough it is often said that…, in fact the opposite is trueIn two sentences:It is undoubtedly true that… …However…It is often argued that… However, it isSome people say that… They claim… However, I feel…Supporters of this viewpoint say that… However, it is
19 CONCLUSIONThe conclusion is the end of the essay. It should be clear and avoid confusing the reader’s mind. The reader expects the conclusion to do some or all of the following:rephrase the questionsummarize the main ideasstress your opinionlook to the future (say what will happen if the situation continues or changes)The reader DOES NOT expect new information in the conclusion. Never add a new idea just because you have thought of it at the end!